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1z0-058 exam


1z0-058

Oracle Real Application Clusters 11g Release 2 and Grid Infrastructure Administration

http://www.aiotestking.com/oracle/tag/1z0-058-v1/

QUESTION NO: 1

Which three actions would be helpful in determining the cause of a node reboot?

A. determining the time of the node reboot by using the update command and subtracting the up time from the current system time

B. looking for messages such as "Oracle CSSD failure. Rebooting for cluster integrity” in /var/log/messages

C. using the crsctl command to view tracing information

D. inspecting the ocssd log for "Begin Dump" or "End Dump" messages

E. inspecting the database alert log for reboot messages

Answer: A,B,D

Explanation:

Determining Which Process Caused Reboot

Log File Locations for Processes Causing Reboots.

  • • oclskd
  • <Grid_Home>/log/<hostname>/client/oclskd.log
  • • ocssd
  • – /var/log/messages
  • – <Grid_Home>/log/<hostname>/cssd/ocssd.log
  • • cssdagent
  • – <Grid_Home>/log/<hostname>/agent/ohasd/oracssdagent_root
  • • cssdmonitor
  • – <Grid_Home>/log/<hostname>/agent/ohasd/oracssdmonitor_root
  • • hangcheck-timer
  • – /var/log/messages

First, determine the time of the node reboot by using the uptime command and subtracting the up time from the current system time. The reboot time will be used when examining log files.

When the OCSSD daemon is responsible for rebooting a node, a message similar to ‘Oracle CSSD failure. Rebooting for cluster integrity’ is written into the system messages log at /var/log/messages.

The cssd daemon log file that is located at <Grid_Home>/log/<hostname>/cssd/ocssd.log may also contain messages similar to “Begin Dump” or “End Dump” just before the reboot.

If hangcheck-timer is being used, it will provide message logging to the system messages log when a node restart is initiated by the module. To verify whether this process was responsible for the node reboot, examine the /var/log/messages file and look for an error message similar to: “Hangcheck: hangcheck is restarting the machine.”

Other useful log files include the Clusterware alert log in <Grid_home>/log/<hostname> and the lastgasp log in /etc/oracle/lastgasp or /var/opt/oracle/lastgasp.

If no indication of which process caused the reboot can be determined from these files, additional debugging and tracing may need to be enabled.

Note: The oclsomon and the oprocd background processes have been eliminated in Oracle

Database 11g Release 2.

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Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 6 – 21

QUESTION NO: 2

After Oracle Grid Infrastructure has been installed, you should take a few moments to verify the installation. Which two actions would be useful in verifying the installation?

A. Run the crsctl status resource –t command to confirm that all necessary cluster resources are online.

B. Use the operating system utilities to verify that your SCAN addresses are being properly resolved.

C. Start Oracle Enterprise Manager and check all monitored targets.

D. Run the cluvfy comp nodecon –n all –verbose command to verify the entire Grid Infrastructure installation.

Answer: A,B

Explanation:

Verifying the Grid Infrastructure Installation

Execute the crsctl command as shown in the slide to confirm that all cluster resources are up and running. In addition, you should confirm that your DNS is properly forwarding address requests for your application and SCAN VIPs to your GNS and that they are resolved properly.You can do this with dig. Execute the dig command with DNS and VIP addresses as shown:

# dig @myDNS.example.com racnode01-cluster01.example.com

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 2 - 44

QUESTION NO: 3

Which two network addresses are required to be static, non-dhcp addresses when using the Grid Naming?

A. GNS VIP Address

B. SCAN VIP Address

C. Node VIP Address

D. Node Public Address

E. Node Private Address

Answer: A,D

Explanation:

In a configuration, all the addresses are assigned by administrative action and given names that resolve with whatever name service is provided for the environment. This is universal historic practice, as there has been no realistic alternative. One result is significant turn around time to obtain the address, and to make the name resolvable. This is undesirable for dynamic reassignment of nodes from cluster to cluster and function to function

DHCP provides for dynamic configuration of the hosts IP address but doesn’t provide a good way to produce good names that are useful to external clients. As a result, it is rarely used in server complexes because the point of a server is to provide service, and the clients need to be able to find the server. This is solved in the current release by providing a service (GNS) for resolving names in the cluster, and defining this to the DNS service used by the clients. To properly configure GNS to work for clients, it is necessary to configure the higher level DNS to forward or delegate a subdomain to the cluster and the cluster must run GNS on an address known to the DNS, by number. This GNS address is maintained as a VIP in the cluster, run on a single node, and a GNSD process that follows that VIP around the cluster and service names in the subdomain. To fully implement GNS, you need four things.

1. DHCP service for the public network in question;

2. A single assigned address in the public network for the cluster to use as the GNS VIP.

3. A forward from the higher level DNS for the cluster to the GNS VIP.

4. A running cluster with properly configured GNS

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2.6.2 IP Address Requirements

Before starting the installation, you must have at least two network adapters configured on each node: One for the private IP address and one for the public IP address.

You can configure IP addresses with one of the following options:

Dynamic IP address assignment using Oracle Grid Naming Service (GNS). If you select this option, then network administrators assign static IP address for the physical host name and dynamically allocated IPs for the Oracle Clusterware managed VIP addresses.

Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide

Implementing GNS

To implement GNS, you must collaborate with your network administrator to obtain an IP address on the public network for the GNS VIP. DNS uses the GNS VIP to forward requests for access to the cluster to GNS. You must also collaborate with your DNS administrator to delegate a domain to the cluster. This can be a separate domain or a subdomain of an existing domain. The DNS server must be configured to forward all requests for this new domain to the GNS VIP. Since each cluster has its own GNS, it must be allocated a unique domain of which to be in control.

Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide

QUESTION NO: 4

You are in the planning stages for upgrading your Oracle RAC database from Oracle Database 10g Release 2 to Oracle Database 11g Release 2 to run under the Oracle Grid Infrastructure. You decide to use an administrator-managed configuration because the cluster is fairly small.

Which statement is correct about this configuration?

A. A parent pool of the GENERIC server pool will be used.

B. You must define a new server pool called MANUAL.

C. A subpool of the GENERIC server pool will be used.

D. A subpool of the FREE server pool will be used.

Answer: C

Explanation:

With Oracle RAC 11g Release 2, there is only a database resource define to Oracle Clusterware. This resource will contain the Oracle Home, the spfile, the server pool(s) and the ASM diskgroup(s) required for the database. The database resource will have a weak start dependency on the VIP which means it will try to start the VIP for the node when the instance starts however if the VIP does not start successfully, the instance will still be started. When reviewing the database resource for an administrator Managed database, you will see a server pool defined with the same name as the Oracle database. This pool will be part of a special Oracle defined server pool called Generic. The Generic server pool is managed by Oracle to support Administrator Managed databases. The server pools that are part of Generic will be automatically created or removed when you add or remove an Administrator Managed database.

Oracle Database 11gR2 Upgrade Companion (Version 2.70)

Explanation:

GENERIC and FREE server pools

When Oracle Clusterware is installed, two server pools are created automatically: GENERIC and Free.All servers in a new installation are assigned to the FREE server pool, initially.Servers move from FREE to newly defined server pools automatically. When you upgrade Oracle Clusterware, all nodes are assigned to the GENERIC server pool to ensure compatibility with database releases before Oracle Database 11g Release 2.

The FREE server pool contains servers that are not assigned to any other server pools. The attributes of the FREE server pool are restricted, as follows:

  • SERVER_NAMES, MIN_SIZE, and MAX_SIZE cannot be edited by the user.
  • IMPORTANCE and ACL can be edited by the user.

The GENERIC server pool stores pre-11.2 databases and administrator-managed databases that have fixed configurations. The GENERIC pool contains servers that match either of the following:

  • Servers that you specified in the HOSTING_MEMBERS attribute of all resources of the application resource type
  • Servers with names that you specified in the SERVER_NAMES attribute of the server pools that list the GENERIC server pool as a parent server pool

The GENERIC server pool’s attributes are restricted, as follows:

  • Configuration attributes of the GENERIC server pool cannot be edited.
  • When you specify a server name in the HOSTING_MEMBERS attribute, Oracle Clusterware allows it only if the server is:
  • Online and exists in the GENERIC server pool
  • Online and exists in the FREE server pool, in which case Oracle Clusterware moves the server into the GENERIC server pool
  • Online and exists in any other server pool and the client is either a cluster
  • administrator or is allowed to use the server pool’s servers, in which case the server is moved into the GENERIC server pool
  • Offline and the client is a cluster administrator

When you register a child server pool with the GENERIC server pool, Oracle Clusterware allows it only if the server names pass the same requirements as previously specified for the resources. Servers are initially considered for assignment into the GENERIC server pool at cluster startup time or when a server is added to the cluster, and only after that to other seserver pools.

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Edition 1.1

September 2010

D65232

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 5 - 9

QUESTION NO: 5

The Instance Initialization parameters are set to:

DB_CREATE_FILE_DEST = +DATA

DB_CREATE_ONLlNE_LOG_DEST_1= +LOGS

DB_CREATE_ONLlNE_LOG_DEST_2 = + FRA

The SQL* Plus command

ALTER DATABASE ADD LOGFILE;

will create:

A. a new log file in the +DATA disk group, or a log file in the + FRA disk group, if +DATA is not available

B. a new log file in the +DATA disk group and a log file in the + FRA disk group

C. a new log file in the +LOGS disk group and a log fileinthe + FRA disk group

D. a new log file in the +LOGS disk group, or a log file in the +FRA dls* available

E. a new log file in the +DATA disk group, a log file in the +LOGS disk group, and a log file in the

+FRA disk group

F. a new log file in the +LOGS disk group, or a log file in the +FRA disk group, if+LOGS is not available

Answer: C

Explanation:

useful parameters are :

DB_CREATE_ONLlNE_LOG_DEST_1= +LOGS

DB_CREATE_ONLlNE_LOG_DEST_2 = + FRA

and logs will be created there

16:18:59 (1)bush@rac11gr2ee> show parameter db_create

NAME |TYPE |VALUE

------------------------------------|-----------|------------------------------

db_create_file_dest |string |+RAC_DATA

db_create_online_log_dest_1 |string |+RAC_DATA

db_create_online_log_dest_2 |string |+RAC_DATA

db_create_online_log_dest_3 |string |<NULL>

db_create_online_log_dest_4 |string |<NULL>

db_create_online_log_dest_5 |string |<NULL>

16:20:06 (1)bush@rac11gr2ee> select name,TOTAL_MB,FREE_MB from v$asm_diskgroup;

NAME | TOTAL_MB| FREE_MB

------------------------------|----------|----------

RAC_DATA | 102360| 71070

RAC_FRA | 51199| 9809

RAC_VOTE | 1725| 895

RAC_FLASH | 30696| 5752

16:20:33 (1)bush@rac11gr2ee> alter system set db_create_online_log_dest_1='+RAC_FLASH';

16:20:54 (1)bush@rac11gr2ee> alter system set db_create_online_log_dest_2='+RAC_FRA';

16:21:05 (1)bush@rac11gr2ee> alter database add logfile;

as there are no activity

1 select lf.group# as lgroup,thread#,lf.member,L.SEQUENCE#,l.bytes/1024/1024 as MB,l.status from v$logfile lf

2* left join v$log l on l.group#=lf.group# where l.status ='UNUSED'

16:22:27 (1)bush@rac11gr2ee> /

LGROUP|THREAD#|MEMBER | SEQUENCE#| MB|STATUS

------|-------|------------------------------------------------------------|----------|----------|----------------

4| 1|+RAC_FLASH/orcl/onlinelog/group_4.259.822327683 | 0| 100|UNUSED

4| 1|+RAC_FRA/orcl/onlinelog/group_4.427.822327685 | 0| 100|UNUSED

cleanup

16:26:44 (1)bush@rac11gr2ee> alter database drop logfile group 4 ;

16:27:09 (1)bush@rac11gr2ee> alter system set db_create_online_log_dest_1='+RAC_DATA';

16:27:11 (1)bush@rac11gr2ee> alter system set db_create_online_log_dest_2='+RAC_DATA';

QUESTION NO: 6

Which three statements define a cluster?

A. is a group of independent, but interconnected computers that act as a single system

B. can be deployed to increase availability and performance

C. can be deployed to balance a dynamically changing workload

D. should appear to an application as multiple servers

Answer: A,B,C

Explanation:

D. not true. rac appear to apps as single server ( example SCAN )

QUESTION NO: 7

You want to create an ACFS on an ADVM volume using a shell script and the appropriate

command-line utilities. These are the requirements:

1. The dynamic volume file must use space in the VOLFILE disk group with a size of 500 M and be called prodvol.

2. The mount point called /acfs already exists.

Which four steps must be performed to achieve this?

A. As the Grid Infrastructure owner, run mount –t acfs /dev/asm/prodvol-417 /acfs to mount the file system.

B. As the Grid Infrastructure owner, run asmcmd volinfo –d VOLFILE prodvol to determine the volume information.

C. As the Grid Infrastructure owner, run asmcmd voicreate –d VOLFILE –s 500M prodvol to create the volume file.

D. As the Grid Infrastructure owner, run mkfs –t acfs /dev/asm/prodvol -417 to create the file system.

E. As root, run mount –t acfs /dev/asm/prodvol -417 /acfs to mount the file system.

F. As root, run mkfs –t acfs /dev/asm/prodvol -417 to create the file system.

Answer: B,C,E,F

Explanation:

Creating an ACFS Volume

Create the volume:

$ asmcmd volcreate -G DATA -s 100M testvol

View the volume information:

$ asmcmd volinfo -G DATA testvol

Make a mount point directory:

$ mkdir /u01/app/oracle/acfsdata/testvol

Make the file system (as root):

# mkfs -t acfs /dev/asm/testvol-403

Mount the file system to the mount point:

# mount -t acfs /dev/asm/testvol-403 /u01/app/oracle/acfsdata/testvol

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Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 10 – 13

Create a file system with the Oracle ACFS mkfs command.

Create a file system using an existing volume device.

For example:

$ /sbin/mkfs -t acfs /dev/asm/volume1-123

mkfs.acfs: version = 11.2.0.1.0.0

mkfs.acfs: on-disk version = 39.0

mkfs.acfs: volume = /dev/asm/volume1-123

mkfs.acfs: volume size = 10737418240

mkfs.acfs: Format complete.

See “mkfs” (Linux or UNIX) or “acfsformat” (Windows). The root privilege is not required. The

ownership of the volume device file dictates who can run this command.

Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator’s Guide

11g Release 2 (11.2)

http://www.oracle.com/webfolder/technetwork/tutorials/obe/db/11g/r2/prod/storage/acfs/acfs.htm

preconfig:

[root@oel6-1 ~]# mkdir /acfs

[root@oel6-1 ~]# chmod 775 /acfs/

[root@oel6-1 ~]# chown oracle:oinstall /acfs

1) create asm volume

[grid@oel6-1 ~]$ asmcmd volcreate -G rac_data -s 500M volfile

2) View the properties of the ASM volumes notice the volume sizes

[grid@oel6-1 ~]$ asmcmd volinfo -G RAC_DATA VOLFILE

Diskgroup Name: RAC_DATA

Volume Name: VOLFILE

Volume Device: /dev/asm/volfile-110

State: ENABLED

Size (MB): 512

Resize Unit (MB): 32

Redundancy: UNPROT

Stripe Columns: 4

Stripe Width (K): 128

Usage:

Mountpath:

3) As the grid user, create the ACFS filesystem on the ASM volume

[grid@oel6-1 ~]$ mkfs -t acfs /dev/asm/volfile-110

mkfs.acfs: version = 11.2.0.3.0

mkfs.acfs: on-disk version = 39.0

mkfs.acfs: volume = /dev/asm/volfile-110

mkfs.acfs: volume size = 536870912

mkfs.acfs: Format complete.

4) As the root user, mount the acfs filesystem with the OS command

[grid@oel6-1 ~]$ mount -t acfs /dev/asm/volfile-110 /acfs

mount: only root can do that

[root@oel6-1 ~]# mount -t acfs /dev/asm/volfile-110 /acfs

[root@oel6-1 ~]# df -h

Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on

/dev/mapper/vg_oel61-lv_root

26G 17G 7.6G 69% /

tmpfs 1.7G 878M 823M 52% /dev/shm

/dev/sda1 485M 125M 335M 28% /boot

/dev/asm/rac_dump-110

5.0G 2.1G 3.0G 41% /u01/dumps

/dev/asm/volfile-110 512M 38M 475M 8% /acfs

cleanup

[root@oel6-1 ~]# umount /acfs/

[grid@oel6-1 ~]$ asmcmd voldelete -G RAC_DATA volfile

QUESTION NO: 8

Some new non-ASM shared storage has been made available by the storage administrator and

the Oracle Grid Infrastructure Administrator decides to move the voting disks, which do not reside

in ASM, to this new non-ASM location.

How can this be done?

A. by running crsctl add css votedisk <path_to_new_location> followed by crsctl delete css

votedisk <path_to_old_location>

B. by running crsctl replace css votedisk <path_to_old_location/path_to_new_location>

C. by running srvctl replace css votedisk <path_to_old_location,path_to_new_location>

D. by running srvctl add css votedisk <path_to_new_location> followed by srvctl delete css

votedisk <path_to_old_location>

Answer: A

Explanation: replace is possoble in ASM

CRSCTL !!! Voting disks are managed using the crsctl utility

http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E11882_01/rac.112/e16794/votocr.htm

Modifying voting disks that are not stored on Oracle ASM:

  • To display the voting disk FUID and file path of each current voting disk, run the following command:

$ crsctl query css votedisk
## STATE File Universal Id File Name Disk group
-- ----- ----------------- --------- ---------
1. ONLINE 7c54856e98474f61bf349401e7c9fb95 (/cfs/host09_vd3) []

  • This command returns a disk sequence number, the status of the disk, the FUID, and the path of the disk and no name of an Oracle ASM disk group.
  • To add one or more voting disks, run the following command, replacing the path_to_voting_disk variable with one or more space-delimited, complete paths to the voting disks you want to add:

$ crsctl add css votedisk path_to_voting_disk [...]

  • To replace voting disk A with voting disk B, you must add voting disk B, and then delete voting disk A. To add a new disk and remove the existing disk, run the following command, replacing the path_to_voting_diskB variable with the fully qualified path name of voting disk B:

$ crsctl add css votedisk path_to_voting_diskB -purge

  • The -purge option deletes existing voting disks.
  • To remove a voting disk, run the following command, specifying one or more space-delimited, voting disk FUIDs or comma-delimited directory paths to the voting disks you want to remove:

$ crsctl delete css votedisk {FUID | path_to_voting_disk[...]}

QUESTION NO: 9

Which three statements are true about using RMAN with ASM?

A. RMAN is the only supported method to back up database files stored in ASM.

B. RMAN is the only supported method to back up ACFS files.

C. RMAN can use ASM storage for backups.

D. RMAN cannot use ASM storage for backups.

E. Using RMAN, database files can be migrated to ASM from a file system.

F. Using RMAN, database files cannot be moved from ASM to a file system

Answer: A,C,E

Explanation:

B- false use OS commands to backup it

D- false

F- false

QUESTION NO: 10

Which two statements are true about ACFS snapshots?

A. They can be created for ACFS file systems only if the ASM disk group hosting the ADVM volume file used by the file system has free space available.

B. They can be created for ACFS file systems only if the ADVM volume file used by the file system has free space available.

C. They can be created only if the ASM disk group hosting the ADVM volume used by the file system has no other ASM files contained in the disk group.

D. They can be created when ACFS is used both on clusters and on stand-alone servers.

E. They are accessible only on the cluster node that was used when creating the snapshot.

Answer: B,D

Explanation:

A. FALSE asm diskgroup already give space for advm ( advm use asm file )

B. TRUE as lvm snapshot can be created only if volgroup has freespace available

C. FALSE, single DG can hold multiple advm volumes

D.TRUE

E. FALSE, it is accesseble to all nodes

Grid Infrastructure 11g Release 2 to include support for a general purpose cluster file system, the ASM Cluster File System (ACFS). To understand the operation of this feature, some terminology needs to be defined and explained.

At the operating system (OS) level, the ASM instance provides the disk group, which is a logical container for physical disk space. The disk group can hold ASM database files and ASM dynamic

volume files. The ASM Dynamic Volume Manager (ADVM) presents the volume device file to the operating system as a block device. The mkfs utility can be used to create an ASM file system in the

volume device file.

Four OS kernel modules loaded in the OS provide the data service. On Linux, they are: oracleasm, the ASM module; oracleadvm, the ASM dynamic volume manager module; oracleoks, the kernel services module; and oracleacfs, the ASM file system module. These modules provide the ASM Cluster File System, ACFS snapshots, the ADVM, and cluster services. The ASM volumes are presented to the OS as a device file at /dev/asm/<volume name>- <number>.

The volume device file appears as another ASM file to the ASM Instance and asmcmd utility. The ASM layers are transparent to the OS file system commands. Only the files and directories created in ACFS and the ACFS snapshots are visible to the OS file system commands. Other file system types such as ext3 and NTFS may be created in an ADMV volume using the mkfs command on Linux and advmutil commands on Windows.

ACFS Snapshot

An Oracle ACFS snapshot is an online, read-only, point-in-time copy of an Oracle ACFS file system. The snapshot copy is initially sparse and merely references the storage allocation information maintained by the file system. Before an Oracle ACFS file extent is modified or deleted, its current value is copied to the snapshot using a copy-on-write (COW) technique to maintain the snapshot’s point-in-time view of the file system.

ACFS snapshots provide a low cost way to preserve the state of a volume at a point in time. When a snapshot is created, a set of metadata about the volume is created in the same volume. This metadata includes the directory structure and the names of all the files. The snapshot consists of pointers to blocks in the volume that have not changed since the snapshot was created and the actual blocks if the file has changed. After the snapshot is created, data blocks are written to the snapshot as files change, but only the original version of changed blocks are written. The snapshot allows you recover deleted files, revert files to the version at the time of the snapshot, and back up a consistent file set by taking a backup of the snapshot.

QUESTION NO: 11

Your cluster Is subject to a service-level agreement that allows for little scheduled down time

You want to use patching and maintenance methods that permit the Oracle Grid Infrastructure and

Oracle RAT Databases to be available as much as possible.

Which two techniques will work some or all of the time to provide you with minimum down time?

A. rolling upgradeable and in place patch sets

B. rolling upgradeable and out of place patch bundles

C. rolling upgradeable and out of place patch sets

D. rolling upgradeable and in place patch bundles

E. rolling upgradeable and out of place one-off patches

Answer: C,D

Explanation:

A.FALSE in place patch sets was it 10g

B.FALSE path bundles area in place

C.TRUE

D.TRUE

E.FALSE patches are in place

Patch Properties

* All upgrades and patchsets are installed as rolling.

* All patch bundles can use the minimum down-time procedures. Most patch bundles are rolling upgradeable.

* Individual patches may be rolling; check the patch.

* After 11.2.0.2, patch bundles can be in-place or out-of-place.

Patch type Tool Method Rolling

Upgradable

——————————————————————–

Patchset OUI Out-of-place Yes

Patch bundle OPatch/Enterprise Manager In-place Most (check)

One-off patch OPatch/Enterprise Manager In-place Most (check)

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Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 4 – 23

Patch Properties

* All upgrades and patchsets are installed as rolling.

* All patch bundles can use the minimum down-time procedures. Most patch bundles are rolling upgradeable.

* Individual patches may be rolling; check the patch.

* After 11.2.0.2, patch bundles can be in-place or out-of-place.

Patch type Tool Method Rolling

Upgradable

——————————————————————–

Patchset OUI Out-of-place Yes

Patch bundle OPatch/Enterprise Manager In-place Most (check)

One-off patch OPatch/Enterprise Manager In-place Most (check)

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Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 4 – 23

Rolling Patches

A rolling patch allows one node at a time to be patched, while other nodes continue to provide service . It:

• Requires distinct software homes for each node

• Allows different versions to coexist temporarily

• May not be available for all patches

By default, Oracle supports rolling upgrade for patches for Oracle Clusterware. This is available for patchsets, bundle patches, and most individual patches. A rolling patch allows one node to be patched to the latest version, while other nodes continue to use the older version and provide business service.

D60488GC11

Edition 1.1

September 2010

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Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 4 - 33

QUESTION NO: 12

Which two types of files can be stored In an ASM clustered file system?

A. OCR and Voting Disk files

B. data files for external tables

C. Oracle database executable

D. Grid Infrastructure executables

E. data files for tablespaces

F. archive log files

Answer: B,C

Explanation:

http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E11882_01/server.112/e18951/asmfilesystem.htm

Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS) is a multi-platform, scalable file system, and storage management technology that extends Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) functionality to support customer files maintained outside of Oracle Database. Oracle ACFS supports many database and application files, including executables, database trace files, database alert logs, application reports, BFILEs, and configuration files. Other supported files are video, audio, text, images, engineering drawings, and other general-purpose application file data.

Notes:

  • Oracle ASM is the preferred storage manager for all database files. It has been specifically designed and optimized to provide the best performance for database file types. For a list of file types supported by Oracle ASM, see Table 7-1, "File types supported by Oracle ASM".
  • Oracle ACFS is the preferred file manager for non-database files. It is optimized for general purpose files.
  • Oracle ACFS does not support any file type that can be directly stored in Oracle ASM, except where explicitly noted in the documentation.
  • Not supported means Oracle Support Services does not take calls and development does not fix bugs associated with storing unsupported file types in Oracle ACFS.
  • Starting with Oracle Automatic Storage Management 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.3), Oracle ACFS supports RMAN backups (BACKUPSET file type), archive logs (ARCHIVELOG file type), and Data Pump dumpsets (DUMPSET file type). Note that Oracle ACFS snapshots are not supported with these files.
  • Oracle ACFS does not support files for the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home.
  • Oracle ACFS does not support Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) and voting files.
  • Oracle ACFS functionality requires that the disk group compatibility attributes for ASM and ADVM be set to 11.2 or greater. For information about disk group compatibility, refer to "Disk Group Compatibility".

check external table:

[grid@oel6-1 ~]$ asmcmd cp /u01/dumps/rac_work.sql +RAC_DATA

ASMCMD-8012: can not determine file type for file

ORA-15056: additional error message

ORA-27046: file size is not a multiple of logical block size

Additional information: 1

ORA-06512: at "SYS.X$DBMS_DISKGROUP", line 320

ORA-06512: at line 3 (DBD ERROR: OCIStmtExecute)

create table test_acfs ( field1 varchar2(2000)) organization external (

TYPE oracle_loader

DEFAULT DIRECTORY dump ACCESS PARAMETERS (

records delimited BY newline

nobadfile

nodiscardfile

nologfile)

LOCATION(dump:'rac_work.sql') ) REJECT LIMIT UNLIMITED;

Table created.

Elapsed: 00:00:03.86

09:59:34 (1)bush@rac11gr2ee> select * from test_acfs;

FIELD1

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[oracle@oel6-1 ~]$ srvctl add service -d orcl -s rac_taf -r oel6-1

PRKO-2101 : Failed to find database instances oel6-1

[oracle@oel6-1 ~]$ srvctl add service -d orcl -s rac_taf -r orcl1

…....etc

31 rows selected.

tablespace and archive log can be used but they are native to ASM

09:59:42 (1)bush@rac11gr2ee> create tablespace test_acfs datafile '/u01/dumps/test_acfs.ora' size 100M;

Tablespace created.

Elapsed: 00:00:11.04

10:00:56 (1)bush@rac11gr2ee> create table test_acfs_ts tablespace test_acfs as select rpad('x',2000) fld1 from dual connect by level <1000;

so use rule

  • Oracle ACFS does not support any file type that can be directly stored in Oracle ASM, except where explicitly noted in the documentation.

QUESTION NO: 13

You want to reorganize the DATA diskgroup while continuing database operations. The DATA

diskgroup was created using normal redundancy having one disk per failure group. The two disks

used are /dev/sdal and /dev/sda2.

You plan to drop the existing disks and add the /dev/sdb1 and /dev/sdb2 disks to failure group

FG_C and the /dev/sdcl and /dev/sdc2 disks to failure group FG_D.

Which procedure would you use to minimize the effect of the I/Os of this reorganization on

ongoing database operations?

A. Set rebalance power to 0 for diskgroup DATA.

Add failure group FG_C with all the /dev/sdb disks.

Add failure group FG_D with all the /dev/sdc disks.

Drop disks/dev/sda1 and /dev/sda2

Set rebalance power to 1 for diskgroup DATA.

B. Set rebalance power to 0 for diskgroup DATA.

Add failure group FG_C with all the /dev/sdb disks.

Add failure group FG_D with all the /dev/sdb disks.

Drop disks/dev/sda1 and /dev/sda2

Set rebalance power to 9 for diskgroup DATA.

C. Set rebalance power to 9 for diskgroup DATA.

Add failure group FG_C with all the /dev/sdb disks.

Add failure group FG_D with all the /dev/sdc disks.

Drop disks /dev/sda1 and /dev/sda2.

Set rebalance power to 0 for diskgroup DATA.

D. Set rebalance power to 0 for diskgroup DATA

Drop disks /dev/sdal and /dev/sdb disks.

Add failure group FG_C with all the /dev/sdb disks.

Add failure group FG_D with all the /dev/sdc disks

Set rebalance power to 1 for diskgroup DATA.

Answer: A

Explanation:

although we can set maximum rebalance power 9, but due to statement “you use to minimize the effect of the I/Os of this reorganization on ongoing database operations”, we have to set it to 1.

QUESTION NO: 14

Which two Cluster ware stack administration actions must be performed as the root user?

A. checking the health of the Clusterware on one node

B. starting the Clusterware manually on one node

C. disabling the Clusterware from automatic start at node reboot

D. checking the health and viability of the Clusterware on all nodes

E. listing the location of the voting disks

Answer: B,C

Explanation:

Controlling Oracle Clusterware

The crsctl utility can be used to control Oracle Clusterware.

To start or stop Oracle Clusterware on a specific node:

# crsctl start crs

# crsctl stop crs

To enable or disable Oracle Clusterware on a specific node:

# crsctl enable crs

# crsctl disable crs

D60488GC11

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 3 – 5

The overall health of the clusterware on a specific node can be obtained by using the crsctl check crs command.

It is possible to target three of the individual daemons by using the crsctl check <daemon> command for the crsd, evmd, and cssd daemons only.

To check the viability of Cluster Synchronization Services (CSS) across all nodes, use the crsctl check cluster command

A. FALSE

checking the health of the Clusterware on one node

[grid@oel6-1 ~]$ ocrcheck

Status of Oracle Cluster Registry is as follows :

Version : 3

Total space (kbytes) : 262120

Used space (kbytes) : 3892

Available space (kbytes) : 258228

ID : 1983640398

Device/File Name : +RAC_DATA

Device/File integrity check succeeded

Device/File not configured

Device/File not configured

Device/File not configured

Device/File not configured

Cluster registry integrity check succeeded

Logical corruption check bypassed due to non-privileged user

not full check done but question is to find out only 2 wrong answer

B) TRUE

[grid@oel6-1 ~]$ crsctl start cluster

CRS-4563: Insufficient user privileges.

CRS-4000: Command Start failed, or completed with errors.

C) TRUE

[grid@oel6-1 ~]$ crsctl disable crs

CRS-4563: Insufficient user privileges.

CRS-4000: Command Disable failed, or completed with errors.

D) FALSE

[grid@oel6-1 ~]$ crsctl check cluster -all

**************************************************************

oel6-1:

CRS-4537: Cluster Ready Services is online

CRS-4529: Cluster Synchronization Services is online

CRS-4533: Event Manager is online

**************************************************************

oel6-2:

CRS-4537: Cluster Ready Services is online

CRS-4529: Cluster Synchronization Services is online

CRS-4533: Event Manager is online

**************************************************************

oel6-3:

CRS-4537: Cluster Ready Services is online

CRS-4529: Cluster Synchronization Services is online

CRS-4533: Event Manager is online

**************************************************************

E) FALSE

[grid@oel6-1 ~]$ crsctl query css votedisk

## STATE File Universal Id File Name Disk group

-- ----- ----------------- --------- ---------

1. ONLINE 34823a26ce364fbabf5edc8ed26ee79a (/dev/oracleasm/disks/RAC_VOTE1) [RAC_VOTE]

2. ONLINE 86aeeb8d00b54f7bbff5d0f7e42d9e7e (/dev/oracleasm/disks/RAC_VOTE2) [RAC_VOTE]

3. ONLINE 1fa5972b64ba4f21bf08e5a7e4c77978 (/dev/oracleasm/disks/RAC_VOTE3) [RAC_VOTE]

4. ONLINE 41294ccfe6de4f68bff72ed8564686f2 (/dev/oracleasm/disks/RAC_VOTE4) [RAC_VOTE]

5. ONLINE b191ef7a2e774f02bf9f4a3c4c1a826b (/dev/oracleasm/disks/RAC_VOTE5) [RAC_VOTE]

Located 5 voting disk(s).

QUESTION NO: 15

Which four statements are true about ADVM interoperability?

A. Using fdisk or similar disk utilities to partition ADVM-managed volumes is not supported

B. On Linux platforms, the raw utility can be used to map ADVM volume block devices to raw

volume devices.

C. The creation of multipath devices over ADVM devices is not supported.

D. You may create ASMLIB devices over ADVM devices to simplify volume management.

E. ADVM does not support ASM storage contained in Exadata.

F. ADVM volumes cannot be used as a boot device or a tool file system.

Answer: A,C,E,F

Explanation:

ADVM Restrictions

  • Partitioning of dynamic volumes (using fdisk or similar) is not supported.
  • Do not use raw to map ADVM volume block devices into raw volume devices.
  • Do not create multipath devices over ADVM devices.
  • Do not create ASMLIB devices over ADVM devices.
  • ADVM supports all ASM supported storage solutions except NFS and Exadata.
  • ADVM volumes cannot be used as a boot device or a root file system

d60488GC11_sg1-2

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 10 - 7

QUESTION NO: 16

Your four-node cluster was originally purchased, installed, and configured three years ago. You recently added another four nodes to the cluster.

Now you want to remove two of the older nodes that are still accessible to be redeployed elsewhere in the data center. Which two are true regarding the procedure for removing one or

more cluster nodes?

A. The procedure requires that all commands be invoked from one of the surviving cluster nodes.

B. All commands are run as root regardless of which nodes are used to invoke them.

C. The procedure requires that some commands be invoked on the node or nodes to be removed

and that some be invoked from all surviving cluster nodes.

D. The procedure requires that some commands be invoked on the node or nodes to be removed

and that some be invoked from one surviving cluster node.

E. Some commands require that the name of the node or nodes to be removed are passed

arguments, and some commands require the name of existing nodes to be passed

Answer: D,E

Explanation:

# crsctl delete node -n node_to_be_deleted

$ ./runInstaller -updateNodeList ORACLE_HOME=Grid_home “CLUSTER_NODES=

{remaining_nodes_list}” CRS=TRUE -silent -local

On any node other than the node you are deleting, run the following command from the

Grid_home /oui/bin directory where remaining_nodes_list is a comma-delimited list of the nodes

that are going to remain part of your cluster:

$ ./runInstaller -updateNodeList ORACLE_HOME=Grid_home “CLUSTER_NODES=

{remaining_nodes_list}” CRS=TRUE -silent

$ cluvfy stage -post nodedel -n node_list [-verbose]

Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide

A.FALSE

B.FALSE

C.FALSE

D.TRUE

On any remaining node, update the node list. Run this command as the Grid software

owner:

/u01/app/11.2.0/grid/oui/bin/runInstaller -updateNodeList ORACLE_HOME=$ORACLE_HOME "CLUSTER_NODES={oel6-1,oel6-2,oel6-3}" CRS=TRUE

E.TRUE

QUESTION NO: 17

Your production environment cluster is running Oracle Enterprise Linux and currently has four

nodes. You are asked to plan for extending the cluster to six nodes. Which three methods are

available to add the new nodes?

A. silent cloning using crsct1 clone cluster and ssh

B. a GUI interface from Enterprise Manager

C. with the Oracle Universal Installer using runInstaller –clone <nodename>

D. silent cloning using perl clone.pl –silent either with parameters in a file or in line

E. using addNode.sh

Answer: B,D,E

Explanation:

http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E11882_01/rac.112/e16794/clonecluster.htm

Note:

A.FALSE

B.TRUE

Cloning is not a replacement for Oracle Enterprise Manager cloning that is a part of the Provisioning Pack. During Oracle Enterprise Manager cloning, the provisioning process simplifies cloning by interactively asking for details about the Oracle home. The interview questions cover such topics as the location to which you want to deploy the cloned environment, the name of the Oracle database home, a list of the nodes in the cluster, and so on.

C. FALSE

D.TRUE in link above

The steps to create a cluster through cloning are as follows:

E. TRUE use by myself

To add or delete Oracle Clusterware from nodes in the cluster, use the addNode.sh and rootcrs.pl scripts. The cloning procedure cannot be used to remove a node from an existing cluster. The cloning procedure is responsible for the work that would have been done by the Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) utility. It does not automate the prerequisite work that must be done on each node before installing the Oracle software.

This technique is very useful if a large number of clusters need to be deployed in an organization. If only one or two clusters are being deployed, you should probably use the traditional installation program to perform the installations.

Note: The Oracle Enterprise Manager administrative tool with the Provisioning Pack feature installed has automated wizards to assist with cloning exercises.

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated E - 3

QUESTION NO: 18

The Oracle 11g Release 2 (version 11.2.0.1) ASM instance has a new diskgroup named data that

Is currently not mounted You log in to a cluster node as the Grid Infrastructure software, and set

the environment variables to point to the ASM instance on that node. Using SQL*plus, you issue

the commands:

CONNECT / AS SYSDBA

ALTER DISKGROUP DATA MOUNT;

The system response is:

ERROR at line 1:

ORA-15032: not all alterations performed

ORA-15260: permission denied on ASM disk group

How do you diagnose this error?

A. Check v$asm_operation for operations halted by the error.

B. Check v$asm_attributes to determine the asm.compatible setting.

C. Check v$asm_usergroup to determine the owning user group for this diskgroup.

D. Check v$xs_session_role to determine the role privileges of the current user.

E. Check the connect string for the privileged role.

Answer: E

Explanation:

Cause

You have logged in with SYSDBA privilege that is not allowed for ASM operations

Solution

Login with SYSASM credentials for ASM operations

MOS [ID 889810.1]

CONNECT / AS SYSDBA

http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E11882_01/server.112/e18951/asminst.htm

The SYSDBA Privilege for Managing Oracle ASM Components

You can connect as SYSDBA to use SQL*Plus or ASMCMD commands to manage Oracle ASM components associated with the database. When running SQL or ASMCMD operations with the SYSDBA privilege, connect to the database instance rather than the Oracle ASM instance.

Connecting as SYSDBA to the database instance has a limited set of Oracle ASM privileges. For example, you cannot create a disk group when connected with the SYSDBA privilege.

When connected as SYSDBA to the database instance, the Oracle ASM operations are limited to:

  • Create and delete files, aliases, directories, and templates
  • Examine various Oracle ASM instance views
  • Operate on files that were created by this user or only access files to which another user had explicitly granted access
  • Granting Oracle ASM File Access Control to other users

QUESTION NO: 19

You enter the following command:

crsctl status resource MyApp

You get this output:

NAME=MyApp

TYPE=cluster_resource TARGET=ONLINE STATE=ONLINE on RACNODE4

MyApp is a policy-managed resource using a server pool with two nodes called RACNODE3 and

RACNODE4 and has a cardinality of 1.

What are the meanings of the target and state status values?

A. MyApp is currently active on RACNODE4 and is meant to be active only on RACNODE4.

B. MyApp is meant to be active, is currently active on RACNODE4, but the Grid Infrastructure may start MyApp on RACNODE3 due to failovers.

C. MyApp is active on RACNODE4 and was manually started.

D. MyApp should also be online on RACNODE3 because it is a cluster_resources type that must

be active on at least two nodes in the cluster, thereby overriding the CARDINALITY attribute.

Answer: B

Explanation:

http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E11882_01/rac.112/e16794/resatt.htm#CHDIFBEH

Resource Attributes

Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide

11g Release 2 (11.2)

TARGET

An internal, read-only attribute that describes the desired state of a resource. Using the crsctl start resource_name or crsctl stop resource_namecommands, however, can affect the value of this attribute.

STATE

An internally-managed attribute that reflects the current state of the resource as reported by Oracle Clusterware. The state of a resource can be one of the following:

  • ONLINE: The resource is online and resource monitoring is enabled (see CHECK_INTERVAL).
  • OFFLINE: The resource is offline and only offline resource monitoring is enabled, if configured (see OFFLINE_CHECK_INTERVAL).
  • INTERMEDIATE: The resource is either partially online or was known to be online before and subsequent attempts to determine its state have failed; resource monitoring is enabled (see CHECK_INTERVAL).
  • UNKNOWN: The resource is unmanageable and its current state is unknown; manual intervention is required to resume its operation. A resource in this state is not monitored.

as myapp is a cluster resource and it using a server pool with two nodes so it can be failover on second node if first one fails

QUESTION NO: 20

After evaluating the various methods for extending a cluster, you decide to use addNode.sh.

The cluster originally consisted of four nodes: RACNODE1, RACNODE2, RACNODE3, and

RACNODE4. Now two nodes called RACNODES and RACNODE6 have been installed and

connected to the cluster by OS administrations.

Which three actions should be performed to check whether the new nodes are ready for running

addNode.sh and to help correct any problems?

A. cluvfy stage -pre crsinst -n RACNODE5/ RACNODE6 -C + DATA -q +VOTE -orainv <oinstall group> -fixup -verbose

B. cluvfy stage -post hwos -n RACNODE5, RACNODE6 -verbose

C. cluvfy comp peer -refnode RACNODEl -n RACNODE5, RACNODE6 -orainv <oinstall group> -

osdba <asmdba group> -verbose

D. cluvfy stage -post hwos -n all -verbose

E. cluvfy stage -pre nodeadd -n RACNODE5, RACNODE6 -fixup

F. cluvfy comp peer -refnode RACNODE5 -n RACNODE6 -orainv <oinstall group> -osdba

<asmdba group> -verbose

Answer: B,C,E

A. FALSE wrong separator ( racnode5/racnode6)

B. TRUE

[grid@oel6-1 ~]$ cluvfy stage -post hwos -n oel6-4,oel6-5 -verbose

C.TRUE

[grid@oel6-1 ~]$ cluvfy comp peer -refnode oel6-1 -n oel6-2,oel6-3 -orainv oinstall -osdba asmdba -verbose

D. FALSE

Which three actions should be performed to check whether the new nodes are ready for running

addNode.sh and to help correct any problems?

not all

E. TRUE

[grid@oel6-3 ~]$ cluvfy stage -pre nodeadd -n oel6-4 -fixup -fixupdir=/tmp

F. FALSE refnode should be ethalon (working ) node

USAGE:

cluvfy comp peer -n <node_list> [-refnode <refnode>] [-r {10gR1|10gR2|11gR1|11gR2}] [-osdba <osdba_group>]

[-orainv <orainventory_group>] [-verbose]

<node_list> is the comma separated list of non-domain qualified nodenames, on which the test should be conducted. If "all" is specified, then all the nodes in the cluster will be used for verification.

<refnode> is the node which will be used as reference.

<10gR1|10gR2|11gR1|11gR2> is the release number of the product.

<osdba_group> is the name of the OSDBA group. The default is "dba".

<orainventory_group> is the name of the Oracle inventory group. The default is "oinstall".

DESCRIPTION:

Checks the compatibility of the nodes in the nodelist against the reference node specified by '-refnode' option. If no '-refnode' is given, values for all the nodes in the nodelist are reported. If OSDBA group is not specified, 'dba' is used as the OSDBA group. If 'Oracle Inventory' group is not specified, 'oinstall' is used as the inventory group.

Explanation:

http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E11882_01/rac.112/e16794/adddelclusterware.htm

Explanation:

Prerequisite Steps for Adding Cluster Nodes

Verify the hardware and operating system installations with the Cluster Verification Utility (CVU).

* From the Grid_home/bin directory on an existing node, run the CVU command to verify your installation at the post-hardware installation stage as shown in the following example, where node_list is a comma-delimited list of nodes you want to add to your cluster:

$ cluvfy stage -post hwos -n node_list | all [-verbose]

* From the Grid_home/bin directory on an existing node, run the CVU command to obtain a detailed comparison of the properties of the reference node with all of the other nodes that are part of your current cluster environment. Replace ref_node with the name of a node in your existing cluster against which you want CVU to compare the nodes to be added. Specify a comma-delimited list of nodes after the -n option. In the following example, orainventory_group is the name of the Oracle Inventory group, and osdba_group is the name of the OSDBA group:

$ cluvfy comp peer [-refnode ref_node] -n node_list

[-orainv orainventory_group] [-osdba osdba_group] [-verbose]

* Verify the integrity of the cluster and node3:

$ cluvfy stage -pre nodeadd -n node3 [-fixup [-fixupdir fixup_dir]] [-verbose]

You can specify the -fixup option and a directory into which CVU prints instructions to fix the cluster or node if the verification fails.

Oracle’ Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide

11g Release 2 (11.2)

QUESTION NO: 21

What are the default connect strings used by SQL*Plus and ASMCMD when connecting to ASM

instances?

A. operating system authentication for ASMCMD

none for SQL*Plus

B. "/ as sysasm" for ASMCMD'

"/" for SQL*Plus

C. "sys/ as sysasm" for ASMCMD;

"/ as sysdba" for SQL* Plus

D. operating system authentication for ASMCMD;

operating system authentication for SQL*Plus

E. "/ as sysasm" for ASMCMD;

Operating system authentication for SQL*Plus

Answer: B

Explanation:

When you invoke the ASMCMD utility from the Grid software $ORACLE_HOME, the utility attempts to connect AS SYSASM. The ASMCMD utility attempts to connect AS SYSASM, so the user that invokes ASMCMD must be a member of the OSASM group. When connecting from a $ORACLE_HOME database, ASMCMD attempts to connect AS SYSDBA. The OS user must be a member of the OSDBA group for ASM. Set the ORACLE_SID environment variable to the local name of the database instance. Any OS user who is a member of the appropriate OS group may connect with ASMCMD to a local instance, and specify the connect role with the -a option.

d60488gc11_sg1-2

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 9 - 10

QUESTION NO: 22

You want to install a database patch on your eight-node cluster by using Opatch with, the minimum amount of down time to your cluster nodes. You have already been prompted for the first set of nodes and you replied with node names RACNODE1 RACNODE2, and RACNODE3.

Which two statements are true about the procedure for minimizing down time?

A. The patch must be propagated to, applied, and the inventory updated on all the remaining nodes before restarting the instances on the first set of nodes.

B. When the first set of nodes has been patched, the instances on the remaining nodes are shut down automatically by opatch.

C. The instances must be started on the first set of nodes and then stopped on the remaining set to make certain that some nodes are always available.

D. When the first set of nodes has been patched, the administrator is prompted to shut down the instances on the remaining nodes.

E. The patch must be propagated to and the inventory updated on all the remaining nodes before restarting the instances on the first set of nodes.

Answer: D,E

Explanation:

A. FALSE, some nodes can be patched and up and running, while last set of nodes can be applyng patch while oracle home is down

C. FALSE, always available is not true ( question says minimal downtime, not no downtime )

Rolling Patch - OPatch Support for RAC (Doc ID 244241.1)

1 - RAC Patching methods

OPatch supports 3 different patch methods on a RAC environment:

  • Patching RAC as a single instance (All-Node Patch)

In this mode, OPatch applies the patch to the local node first, then propagates the patch to all the other nodes, and finally updates the inventory. All instances must be down during the whole patching process.

  • Patching RAC using a minimum down-time strategy (Min. Downtime Patch)

In this mode, OPatch patches the local node, asks users for a sub-set of nodes, which will be the first subset of nodes to be patched. After the initial subset of nodes are patched, Opatch propagates the patch to the other nodes and finally updates the inventory. The downtime would happen between the shutdown of the second subset of nodes and the startup of the initial subset of nodes patched.

  • Patching RAC using a rolling strategy - No down time (Rolling Patch)

With this method, there is no downtime. Each node would be patched and brought up while all the other nodes are up and running, resulting in no disruption of the system.

A rolling patch does not always incur no downtime as some patches require post-installation steps, i.e. running sql scripts to patch the actual database. Please refer to patch readme to find out whether post-installation steps requires downtime or not.

2 - Flow diagrams

  • All-Node Patch
  • . Shutdown all Oracle instances on all nodes
  • . Apply the patch to the RAC home on all nodes
  • . Bring all instances up
  • Minimum downtime
  • . Shutdown the Oracle instance on node 1
  • . Apply the patch to the RAC home on node 1
  • . Shutdown the Oracle instance on node 2
  • . Apply the patch to the RAC home on node 2
  • . Shutdown the Oracle instance on node 3
  • . At this point, instances on nodes 1 and 2 can be brought up
  • . Apply the patch to the RAC home on node 3
  • . Startup the Oracle instance on node 3
  • Rolling patch (no downtime)
  • . Shutdown the Oracle instance on node 1
  • . Apply the patch to the RAC home on node 1
  • . Start the Oracle instance on node 1
  • . Shutdown the Oracle instance on node 2
  • . Apply the patch to the RAC home on node 2
  • . Start the Oracle instance on node 2
  • . Shutdown the Oracle instance on node 3
  • . Apply the patch to the RAC home on node 3
  • . Start the Oracle instance on node 3

Installing a Patch with Minimum Down Time with OPatch

In minimum down-time patching, the nodes are divided into two sets. One set of nodes is shut down and the patch is applied to those nodes. After the first set of nodes has been patched, the second set of nodes is shut down. The first set of nodes is then restarted and the patch is applied to the second set of nodes. After the patch has been applied to the second set of nodes, those nodes are restarted. This method leads to less down time for Oracle RAC, compared to having all the nodes shut down at the same time. When you use the minimum down-time patching method, the following actions occur:

  • The local node is always patched first.
  • The local node is used as a base to patch the other nodes.
  • The user is prompted for the first set of nodes to patch.
  • For each node in this first set, the user is asked to stop the instance and then the patch is propagated and applied to that node before continuing to the next node.
  • When the first set of nodes has been patched, the user is asked to shut down Clusterware on the remaining nodes.
  • The instances are stopped on the last set of remote nodes.
  • The patch is propagated to the last set of nodes and the inventory is updated.
  • You can then start up the patched nodes (the first set of nodes) before patching the remaining nodes.

D60488GC11

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 4-44

Patch 16742216: GRID INFRASTRUCTURE PATCH SET UPDATE 11.2.0.3.7 (INCLUDES DB PSU 11.2.0.3.7)

[grid@oel6-1 ~]$ cd /u01/patch/

[grid@oel6-1 patch]$ $ORACLE_HOME/OPatch/ocm/bin/emocmrsp

[grid@oel6-1 patch]$ unzip p16742216_112030_Linux-x86-64.zip

[root@oel6-1 ~]# cd /u01/patch/

[root@oel6-1 patch]# . oraenv

ORACLE_SID = [root] ? +ASM1

The Oracle base has been set to /u01/app/grid

[root@oel6-1 patch]# $ORACLE_HOME/OPatch/opatch auto /u01/patch/ -ocmrf /u01/patch/ocm.rsp

Patching instructions:

  1. From the Oracle database home, make sure to stop the Oracle RAC databases running on all nodes. As the database home owner execute:
    $ <ORACLE_HOME>/bin/srvctl stop database –d <db-unique-name>
  2. On the 1st node, unmount the ACFS file systems. See My Oracle Support Document 1494652.1 for unmounting ACFS file systems.
  3. On the 1st node, apply the patch to the GI Home using the opatch auto command. As root user, execute the following command:
    # opatch auto <UNZIPPED_PATCH_LOCATION> -oh <GI_HOME> -ocmrf <ocm response file>

  4. If the message, "A system reboot is recommended before using ACFS” is shown, then a reboot must be issued before continuing. Failure to do so will result in running with an unpatched ACFS\ADVM\OKS driver.
  5. On the 1st node, remount ACFS file systems. See My Oracle Support Document 1494652.1 for mounting ACFS file systems.
  6. On the 1st node, apply the patch to the Database home using the opatch auto command. Since the Database home is shared, this operation will patch the Database home across the cluster. Note that a USM only patch cannot be applied to a database home. As root user, execute the following command:
    # opatch auto <UNZIPPED_PATCH_LOCATION> -oh <DATABASE_HOME> -ocmrf <ocm response file>
  7. On the 1st node only, restart the Oracle instance, which you have previously stopped in Step 1. As the database home owner execute:
    $ <ORACLE_HOME>/bin/srvctl start instance –d <db-unique-name> -n <nodename>

  8. On the 2nd (next) node, unmount the ACFS file systems. See My Oracle Support Document 1494652.1 for unmounting ACFS file systems.
  9. On the 2nd node, apply the patch to GI Home using the opatch auto command. As root user, execute the following command:
    # opatch auto <UNZIPPED_PATCH_LOCATION> -oh <GI_HOME> -ocmrf <ocm response file>
  10. If the message, "A system reboot is recommended before using ACFS” is shown, then a reboot must be issued before continuing. Failure to do so will result in running with an unpatched ACFS\ADVM\OKS driver.
  11. On the 2nd node, running the opatch auto command in Step 9 will restart the stack.
  12. On the 2nd node, remount ACFS file systems. See My Oracle Support Document 1494652.1 for mounting ACFS file systems.
  13. On the 2nd node only, restart the Oracle instance, which you have previously stopped in Step 1. As the database home owner execute:
    $ <ORACLE_HOME>/bin/srvctl start instance –d <db-unique-name> -n <nodename>
  14. Repeat Steps 8 through 13 for all remaining nodes of the cluster.

QUESTION NO: 23

You are ready to add two new nodes called RACNODE 5 and RACNODE 6 to your existing four-node cluster by using addNode.sh.

You have run cluvfy -peer to check the new nodes against a reference node.

When you originally created the cluster, the network administrators chose to statically define the

SCAN VIP addresses in the corporate DNS server, and you installed the Oracle Grid Infrastructure

without using GNS.

What is the correct way to silently add the nodes?

A.addNode.sh -silent “CLUSTER_NEW_NODES={RACNODE5, RACNODE6} “

B.addNode.sh -silent “CLUSTER_NEW_VIRTUAL_HOSTNAMES={RACNODE5-VIP,

RACNODE6-VIP} “

C.addNode.sh -silent “CLUSTER_NEW_NODES={RACNODE5, RACNODE6}”

“CLUSTER_NEW_VIRTUAL_HOSTNAMES={RACNODE5-VIP, RACNODE6-VIP}”

D.addNode.sh -silent -responseFile mynewnodes.txt with the response file containing only

‘CLUSTER_NEW_NODES={RACNODE5, RACNODE6} “

E.addNode.sh -silent -responseFile mynewnodes.txt With the response file containing

“CLUSTER_NEW_VIRTUAL_HOSTNAMES={RACNODE3-VIP, RACNODE4-VIP}”

Answer: C

Explanation:

A.FALSE no network config

B.FALSE no host config

C.TRUE

[grid@oel6-1 bin]$ sh addNode.sh -silent "CLUSTER_NEW_NODES={oel6-4}" "CLUSTER_NEW_VIRTUAL_HOSTNAMES={rac-4-vip}"

D.FALSE no network config

E.FALSE no host config

QUESTION NO: 24

Which four statements about mounting ASM cluster file systems are true?

A. An ACFS volume can be mounted by using ASMCA.

B. The standard Linux/UNIX mount command can be used to mount an ACFS volume, provided

the ACFS type is specified; (mount -t acfs).

C. ACFS volumes can be mounted by using the ASMCMD utility.

D. The acfsmountvol command can be used to mount ACFS volumes on Windows platforms.

E. Oracle Enterprise Manager can be used to mount ACFS volumes.

Answer: A,B,D,E

Explanation:

http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E18283_01/server.112/e16102/asmfs_util001.htm#BABDHBEI

A.TRUE

ASMCA (asm config assistant) can do almost everything =)

There are buttons for Create, Show Mount All, and Show Dismount All commands

root privilege is required to run mount.

Windows Administrator privileges are required to mount an Oracle ACFS

On this page, you can choose to mount, dismount, delete, create snapshot, view content, register,

and deregister a selected file system. In addition, you can create a file system, mount all file

systems, or dismount all file systems.

Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator’s Guide

B.TRUE

mount -t acfs work’s well

C.FALSE

Mount the file system with the Oracle ACFS mount command. You can mount a file system before or after registering the file system. If the file system has been registered, you can wait for the file system to be mounted automatically.

For example:

# /bin/mount -t acfs /dev/asm/volume1-123 /u01/app/acfsmounts/myacfs

D.TRUE

See "mount" (Linux or UNIX) or "acfsmountvol" (Windows). The root privilege is required to run the mount command and the Windows Administrator privilege is required to run the acfsmountvol command.

E.TRUE

QUESTION NO: 25

You are allocating space from the ASM disk group for an ADVM volume. What will be the volume

extent and Volume Allocation Unit (VAU) if the stripe column is 4 and AU is 1 MB? which are the

default values?

A. The volume extent is 64 MB and the VAU will be 512 MB.

B. The volume extent is 64 MB and the VAU will be 256 MB.

C. The volume extent is 32 MB and the VAU will be 256 MB.

D. It is not possible to calculate these values with the given information.

Answer: B

Explanation:

A volume allocates space in Volume Allocation Units (VAU) at creation and resize.

  • • VAU is stripe column multiplied by volume extent size.
  • • Volume extent is statically assigned based on the disk group AU
  • Volume extent is 64 MB when the AU is 1 MB.
  • Each extent is allocated round-robin on different disks.
  • Stripe column is the number of stripes used inside a volume.
  • Stripe column can range from 1 to 8
  • Stripe column default 4

Example: If the stripe column is 4 and the AU is 1 MB, the volume extent is 64 MB and the VAU will be 256 MB. When the volume is created, multiples of the VAU will be allocated. If you asked for a volume of 300 MB in size, you would get a volume of 512 MB, assuming the space is available in the disk group. If you resized the volume, the space would be added or dropped in 256 MB chunks.

d60488GC11_sg1-2

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 10 - 9

QUESTION NO: 26

You are creating a resource definition called WEBAPP for a web-based application that requires an application called WEBVIP. Both WEBVIP and WEBAPP are normally active on a single node, but may fail over if required to another cluster node in your eight-node cluster. A second VIP application resource called appsvip exists, used by a second application resource

called secapp. webvip and webapp must start In the correct sequence.

Which two start dependencies would you use for the WEBAPP application resource definition?

A. hard(SECAPP)

B. pullup(SECAPP)

C. pullup(WEBVIP)

D. hard(WEBVIP)

E. dispersion(WEBVIP)

F. weak (WEBVIP)

Answer: С,D

Explanation:

Start Dependencies

hard

Define a hard start dependency for a resource if another resource must be running before the

dependent resource can start. For example, if resource A has a hard start dependency on

resource B, then resource B must be running before resource A can start.

Note:

Oracle recommends that resources with hard start dependencies also have pullup start

dependencies. weak

If resource A has a weak start dependency on resource B, then an attempt to start resource A

attempts to start resource B, if resource B is not running. The result of the attempt to start

resource B is, however, of no consequence to the result of starting resource A.

attraction

If resource A has an attraction dependency on resource B, then Oracle Clusterware prefers to

place resource A on servers hosting resource B. Dependent resources, such as resource A in this

case, are more likely to run on servers on which resources to which they have attraction

dependencies are running. Oracle Clusterware places dependent resources on servers with

resources to which they are attracted.

pullup

Use the pullup start dependency if resource A must automatically start whenever resource B

starts. This dependency only affects resource A if it is not running. As is the case for other

dependencies, pullup may cause the dependent resource to start on any server. Use the pullup

dependency whenever there is a hard stop dependency, so that if resource A depends on

resource B and resource B fails and then recovers, then resource A is restarted.

dispersion

If you specify the dispersion start dependency for a resource, then Oracle Clusterware starts this

resource on a server that has the fewest number of resources to which this resource has

dispersion. Resources with dispersion may still end up running on the same server if there are not

enough servers to disperse them to.

Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide

11g Release 2 (11.2)

QUESTION NO: 27

The database administrator is tasked with creating an ASM disk group. Exadata is not being used.

If failure groups are not specified when creating an ASM disk group containing 10 disks, how

many failure groups are automatically created?

A. one

B. two

C. five

D. ten

Answer: D

Explanation:

ASM Disk Group: Failure Groups

A failure group is a subset of the disks in a disk group, which could fail at the same time because of shared hardware.

  • Failure groups enable the mirroring of metadata and user data.
  • The default failure group creation puts every disk in its own failure group.
  • Multiple disks can be placed in a singe failure group at disk group creation.
  • Failure groups apply only to normal and high redundancy disk groups.
  • A normal redundancy disk group requires at least two failure groups to implement two-way mirroring of files
  • A high redundancy disk group requires at least three failure groups to implement three-way mirroring files

d60488gc11_sg1-2

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 1 - 58

QUESTION NO: 28

The Oracle Grid Infrastructure administrator runs ocrconfig -backuploc <new_location> after

completing the installation of the Grid Infrastructure. What are the two reasons for doing this

A. The master node may change if the node running the master CRS daemon shuts down causing another node to become the master. Because the default location is a nonshared storage, and only the master node performs backups, the backups could be spread around on many nodes making management or recovery more difficult.

B. The cluster node currently acting as the master node for CRS is the only node that backs up the OCR to the default location, and by changing the location, all cluster nodes will then take backups.

C. This is done to move the backup location into an ASM Cluster File System directory so that the backups benefit from ASM striping and mirroring.

D. If for any reason CRS must be stopped on all nodes for a time spanning a scheduled backup, then on restart, the backup timer will be reset. This could result in longer time duration between automatic backups than the standard four-hour interval.

Answer: A,D

Explanation:

Changing the Automatic OCR Backup Location

  • The automatic backup location should be changed to a location shared by all nodes.

# ocrconfig –backuploc <path to shared CFS or NFS>

  • The backup location will be used for both automatic and manual backups.
  • It is recommended that these files be included in routine scheduled backups to an offline location.
  • If CRS has been stopped on all nodes, the schedule of backups is suspended.
  • On restart, a backup is not immediately taken and the backup timer is reset

d60488gc11_sg1-2

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 3 - 12

QUESTION NO: 29

From a command line, you can create an ASM volume with the same properties by using either

SQL or ASMCMD. Which two commands will create a 500 MB volume called TESTVOL in the

ACFSDG ACFS disk group by storing only one copy of the volume file extents In the diskgroup by storing only one copy of the volume file extents in the disk group.

A. SQL> alter diskgroup ACFSDG add volume TESTVOL size 500M unprotected;

B. ASMCMD> volcreate -G ASMFS -s 500M

C. SQL> alter diskgroup ACFS add volume TESTVOL size 500M;

D. ASMCMD> volcreate -G ACFSDG-s 500M --redundancy unprotected TESTVOL

E. SQL> create volume TESTVOL diskgroup ACFSDG size 500M unprotected;

Answer A,D

explanation :

as question is “ Which two commands” +”storing only one copy

so there is 1 answer in sql command and one for asmcmd

as they very want unprotected so answer with this word is is preferred

A. TRUE

SQL> alter diskgroup RAC_DATA add volume TESTVOL3 size 500M unprotected;

Volume Name: TESTVOL3

Volume Device: /dev/asm/testvol3-110

State: ENABLED

Size (MB): 512

Resize Unit (MB): 32

Redundancy: UNPROT

Stripe Columns: 4

Stripe Width (K): 128

Usage:

Mountpath:

.

B. FALSE not specified volume name

C. FALSE

ACFSDG acfs disk group

SQL> alter diskgroup DATA add volume TESTVOL2 size 500M;

ORA-15032: not all alterations performed

ORA-15001: diskgroup "DATA" does not exist or is not mounted

D.TRUE

ASMCMD> volcreate -G RAC_DATA -s 500M --redundancy unprotected TESTVOL

ASMCMD> volinfo -G rac_data testvol

Diskgroup Name: RAC_DATA

Volume Name: TESTVOL

Volume Device: /dev/asm/testvol-110

State: ENABLED

Size (MB): 512

Resize Unit (MB): 32

Redundancy: UNPROT

Stripe Columns: 4

Stripe Width (K): 128

Usage:

Mountpath:

ASMCMD> help volcreate

volcreate

Creates an Oracle ADVM volume in the specified disk group.

volcreate -G diskgroup -s size [ --column number ] [ --width stripe_width ] [--redundancy {high|mirror|unprotected} ] [--primary {hot|cold}] [--secondary {hot|cold}] volume

E. FALSE

SQL> create volume testvol diskgroup rac_data size 500M unprotected;

create volume testvol diskgroup rac_data size 500M unprotected

*

ERROR at line 1:

ORA-00901: invalid CREATE command

QUESTION NO: 30

You created a single scan named mydb-scan.myclust.example.com by adding this name to the /etc/hosts file. As a result, the Grid Infrastructure has four node listeners and node VIP but only a single SCAN listener and SCAN VIP. The network administrator has returned and modified the corporate DNS server to associate three IP addresses with the mydb-scan.myclust.example.com scan name. The SCAN VIPs are on the same network as the node VIPs.

You now must replace the single SCAN VIP and listener with three of each for high availability purposes and make certain that the SCANs and listeners are active. Which procedure will do this properly if run as the root user?

A.srvctl stop scan_listener srvctl stop scan

srvctl start scan

srvctl start scan_listener

B.srvctl stop scan_listener srvctl stop scan

srvctl remove scan

srvctl add scan -n MYDB-SCAN.MYCLUST.EXAMPLE.COM

C.srvctl start scan

srvctl startscan_listener

srvctl add scan -n MYDB-SCAN.MYCLUST.EXAMPLE.COM

srvctl start scan

srvctl startscan_listener

D.srvctl stop scan_listener

srvctl stop scan

srvctl remove scan

srvctl add scan

srvctl start scan

srvctl start scan listener

Answer: D

Explanation:

My experiments

modifying SCAN hostname in Oracle RAC

[grid@oel6-1 ~]$ srvctl stop scan_listener

[grid@oel6-1 ~]$ srvctl stop scan

[root@oel6-1 ~]# srvctl modify scan -n rac11-scan.djeday.lan

[root@oel6-1 ~]# crsctl modify type ora.scan_vip.type -attr "ATTRIBUTE=SCAN_NAME,DEFAULT_VALUE=rac11-scan.djeday.lan"

16:31:14 (2)bush@orcl> alter system set remote_listener='rac11-scan:1521';

[root@oel6-1 ~]# srvctl start scan

[root@oel6-1 ~]# srvctl modify scan_listener -u

[root@oel6-1 ~]# srvctl start scan_listener

How to update the IP address of the SCAN VIP resources (ora.scan<n>.vip) (Doc ID 952903.1)

SOLUTION

  1. Before the SCAN VIPs can be changed, the entry for the SCAN name on the Domain Name Server (DNS) needs to be updated with the new IP addresses. This usually will be done by a network administrator. To check the current setting, the following command can be used:

nslookup <scan_name>

  1. To check the current IP address(es) of the SCAN VIPs, run the following commands as the root user:

$GRID_HOME/bin/srvctl config scan

  1. Stop the SCAN listeners and SCAN

$GRID_HOME/bin/srvctl stop scan_listener

$GRID_HOME/bin/srvctl stop scan

  1. Next refresh the SCAN VIPs with the new IP addresses from the DNS entry:

$GRID_HOME/bin/srvctl modify scan -n <scan_name

  1. To check if the SCAN VIPs have been changed, run the following command, it should now show the new IP addresses.

$GRID_HOME/bin/srvctl config scan

  1. Restart SCAN & SCAN listener:

$GRID_HOME/bin/srvctl start scan

$GRID_HOME/bin/srvctl start scan_listener

  1. If the number of SCAN VIPs has changed, the SCAN listener needs to be updated:

$GRID_HOME/bin/srvctl modify scan_listener -u

QUESTION NO: 31

Which three statements are true about the logging or tracing of Java-based Oracle tools?

A. By default, Oracle logs actions for DBCA and DBUA.

B. For tools such as SRVCTL and CLUVFY, tracing can be enabled by setting srvm trace = true

your shell environment before executing the commands.

C. The srvm_trace environment variable can be set only in the user's shell environment file.

D. To disable tracing for Java-based tools, unset the srvm_trace variable:

export srvm_trace=

Answer A,B,D

Enabling Tracing for Java-Based Tools

To enable tracing for cluvfy, netca, and srvctl, set

SRVM_TRACE to TRUE:

$ export SRVM_TRACE=TRUE

$ srvctl config database –d orcl > /tmp/srvctl.trc

$ cat /tmp/srvctl.trc

...

[main] [ 2009-09-16 00:58:53.197 EDT ]

[CRSNativeResult.addRIAttr:139] addRIAttr: name 'ora.orcl.db 3

1', 'USR_ORA_INST_NAME@SERVERNAME(host01)':'orcl1'

[main] [ 2009-09-16 00:58:53.197 EDT ]

[CRSNativeResult.addRIAttr:139] addRIAttr: name 'ora.orcl.db 3

1', 'USR_ORA_INST_NAME@SERVERNAME(host02)':'orcl2'

[main] [ 2009-09-16 00:58:53.198 EDT ]

[CRSNativeResult.addRIAttr:139] addRIAttr: name 'ora.orcl.db 3

1', 'USR_ORA_INST_NAME@SERVERNAME(host03)':'orcl3'

[main] [ 2009-09-16 00:58:53.198 EDT ]

[CRSNative.searchEntities:857] found 3 ntitie

All Java-based tools and utilities that are available in RAC are invoked by executing scripts of the same name as the tool or utility.This includes the Cluster Verification Utility (cluvfy), the Database Configuration Assistant (dbca), the Database Upgrade Assistant (dbua), the Net Configuration Assistant (netca), and Server Control (srvctl). For example, to run the Database Configuration Assistant, enter the dbca command.

By default, Oracle enables traces for dbca and dbua. The resulting log files are written to

$ORACLE_HOME/cfgtoollogs/dbca/ and $ORACLE_HOME/cfgtoollogs/dbua, respectively.

For cluvfy and srvctl, you can set the SRVM_TRACE environment variable to TRUE to make the system generate traces. Traces are written to either log files or standard output. For example, the system writes traces to log files in <Grid_Home>/cv/log/ for cluvfy. However, as shown in the slide, it writes traces directly to the standard output for srvctl.

To disable tracing for Java-based tools, unset the SRVM_TRACE variable:

export SRVM_TRACE=

d60488gc11_sg1-2

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 6 - 17

QUESTION NO: 32

You have created four top-level server pools called OLTP, BATCH, DSS, and support for a policy- managed, eight-node cluster. The OLTP pool has two child pools called OLTP_CHILD1 and OLTP_CHILD2.

Which two statements are true about sharing servers among the various server pools on your cluster?

A. Servers are never shared and are always mutually exclusive between top-level server pools.

B. Use the exclusive_pools attribute to prevent servers being shared between top-level server pools.

C. Use the exclusive_pools attribute to prevent servers being shared between OLTP_CHILD1 and OLTP_CHILD2 .

D. Use the exclusive_pools attribute to prevent servers being shared between batch, dss, support,oltp_childi, and OLTP_CHILD2.

E. Servers are never shared and are always mutually exclusive between top-level server pools and between sibling child pool.

Answer A,C

explanation:

Server Pools

Server pools are logical divisions of a cluster into pools of servers or nodes. They:

  • Distribute a uniform workload over several servers in thecluster
  • Are allocated to host databases or other resources
  • Are managed using the crsctl and srvctl commands
  • Support parent-child relationships among server pools
  • Top-level pools are mutally exclusive
  • Include two build-in server pools at Oracle Clusterware installation:
  • Free: For servers that are not assigned to other pools
  • generic: foradministrator managed fixed configuration and pre-11gR2 databases

d60488gc11_sg1-2

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 5 - 6

Table 2-2 Server Pool Attributes

http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E11882_01/rac.112/e16794/admin.htm#CHDCIEJJ

EXCLUSIVE_POOLS

String

This optional attribute indicates if servers assigned to this server pool are shared with other server pools. A server pool can explicitly state that it is exclusive of any other server pool that has the same value for this attribute. Two or more server pools are mutually exclusive when the sets of servers assigned to them do not have a single server in common. For example, server pools A and B must be exclusive if they both set the value of this attribute to foo_A_B.

Top-level server pools are mutually exclusive, by default.

Top-level server pools:

EXCLUSIVE_POOLS

This optional attribute indicates if servers assigned to this server pool are shared with other server

pools. A server pool can explicitly state that it is exclusive of any other server pool that has the

same value for this attribute. Two or more server pools are mutually exclusive when the sets of

servers assigned to them do not have a single server in common. For example, server pools A

and B must be exclusive if they both set the value of this attribute to foo_A_B.

Top-level server pools are mutually exclusive, by default.

QUESTION NO: 33

In an ASM instance there are several parameters that have meanings specific to the ASM Which

parameter is mandatory?

A. ASM_DISKGROUP

B. ASM_DISKSTRING

C. INSTANCE_TYPE

D. CLUSTER_DATABASE

E. MEMORY_TARGET

F. ASM_POWER_LIMIT

Answer C

ASM Initialization Parameters
  • ASM initialization parameters can be set:
  • After installation, by using ALTER SYSTEM or ALTER
  • SESSION SQL statements.
  • INSTANCE_TYPE=ASM is the only mandatory parameter setting.
  • There are a number of ASM-specific parameters.
  • these have names starting with ASM_
  • Some database parameters are valid for ASM
  • for example : memory_target
  • You can use PFILE or SPFILE to manage parameters

d60488gc11_sg1-2

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 7 - 3

QUESTION NO: 34

Which three fragments will complete this statement correctly? In a cluster environment, an ACFS

volume___________.

A. Will be automatically mounted by a node on reboot by default

B. Must be manually mounted after a node reboot

C. Will be automatically mounted by a node if it is defined as cluster stack startup if it

is included in the ACFS mount registry.

D. Will be automatically mounted to all node if it is defined as cluster resource when

dependent cluster resources requires access

E. Will be automatically mounted to all node in the cluster when the file system is

registered

F. Must be mounted before it can be registered

Answers: CDE

Explanation:

About the Oracle ACFS Mount Registry

The Oracle ACFS mount registry supports both Oracle Restart and Oracle Grid Infrastructure cluster configurations. File systems that are to be mounted persistently (across reboots) can be registered with the Oracle ACFS mount registry. In cluster configurations, registered Oracle ACFS file systems are automatically mounted by the mount registry, similar to a clusterwide mount table. However, in Oracle Restart configurations the automatic mounting of registered Oracle ACFS file systems is not supported. For more information, see “Oracle ACFS and Oracle Restart”.

By default, an Oracle ACFS file system that is inserted into the cluster mount registry is automatically mounted on all cluster members, including cluster members that are added after the registry addition. However, the cluster mount registry also accommodates single-node and multi-node (subset of cluster nodes) file system registrations. The mount registry actions for each cluster member mount only registered file systems that have been designated for mounting on that member.

The Oracle ACFS registry resource actions are designed to automatically mount a file system only one time for each Oracle Grid Infrastructure initialization to avoid potential conflicts with administrative actions to dismount a given file system.

Oracle ACFS Individual File System Resource Management

The Oracle ACFS individual file system resource is supported only for Oracle Grid Infrastructure cluster configurations; it is not supported for Oracle Restart configurations. See “Oracle ACFS and Oracle Restart”.

Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant (ASMCA) facilitates the creation of Oracle ACFS individual file system resources (ora.diskgroup.volume.acfs). During database creation with Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA), the individual file system resource is included in the dependency list of its associated disk group so that stopping the disk group also attempts to stop any dependent Oracle ACFS file systems.

An Oracle ACFS individual file system resource is typically created for use with application resource dependency lists. For example, if an Oracle ACFS file system is configured for use as an Oracle Database home, then a resource created for the file system can be included in the resource dependency list of the Oracle Database application. This dependency causes the file system and stack to be automatically mounted due to the start action of the database application.

An Oracle ACFS file system that is to be mounted from a dependency action should not be included in the Oracle ACFS mount registry.

QUESTION NO: 35

Which three actions are required to create a general purpose ASM cluster file system (ACFS) to be automatically mounted by Oracle Clusterware?

A. Format an ASM volume with an ASM cluster file system.

B. Create mount points on all cluster nodes where the ASM cluster file system will be mounted.

C. Manually add an entry to /etc/fstab defining the volume, mount point, and mount options on each node In the cluster.

D. Register the mount point.

Answer: A,B,D

Explanation:

C. FALSE

acfs mount registry it is cluster-wide fstab

QUESTION NO: 36

Which three statements are true about cluster (OCR) and local registries (OLR)?

A. The ocrdump command can be used to dump the contents of either the cluster registry (OCR)or the local registry (OLR).

B. Information In the OCR is organized by keys that are associated with privileges. Therefore, the root user will see more information when using ocrdump than the grid user.

C. After the cluster is created, the size of the OCR is static unless the Clusterware software Is upgraded.

D. The ocrdump command can be used to dump information for a single OCR key.

Answer: A,B,D

Explanation:

Using ocrdump to View Logical Contents of the OCR
  • To dump the OCR contents into a text file for reading:
  • [grid]$ ocrdump filename_with_limited_results.txt
  • [root]# ocrdump filename_with_full_results.txt
  • To dump the OCR contents for a specific key:
  • # ocrdump –keyname SYSTEM.language
  • To dump the OCR contents to stdout in XML format
  • # ocrdump –stdout -xml
  • To dump the contents of an OCR backup file;
  • # ocrdump –backupfile week.ocr

[grid@oel6-1 ~]$ ocrdump -stdout -local ( for OLR )

d60488gc11_sg1-2

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 6 - 22

QUESTION NO: 37

In your two-instance RAC database, you find that FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET is set to 300 on

both the nodes. The ESTD_CLUSTER_AVAILABLE_TIME column in the

V$INSTANCE_RECOVERY view shows the value 100.

What is the correct interpretation? (Choose 2)

A.In the event of an instance failure, the database will become partially available In 100 seconds.

B.In the event of an instance failure, the database will become fully available in 100 seconds.

C.In the event of an instance failure, the failed instance will become fully available In 300 seconds.

D.In the event of an instance failure, the database will become partially available in 200 seconds.

E.In the event of an instance failure, the failed instance will become available In 300 seconds.

Answer: A,E

Explanation:

In single-instance environment, the instance startup combined with the crash recovery time is controlled by the setting of the FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET initialization parameter. You can set its value if you want incremental checkpointing to be more aggressive than the autotuned checkpointing. However, this is at the expense of a much higher I/O overhead.

In a RAC environment, including the startup time of the instance in this calculation is useless because one of the surviving

instances is doing the recovery.

In a RAC environment, it is possible to monitor the estimated target, in seconds, for the duration from the start of instance recovery to the time when GCD is open for lock requests for blocks not needed for recovery. This estimation is published in the V$INSTANCE_RECOVERY view through the ESTD_CLUSTER_AVAILABLE_TIME column. Basically, you can monitor the

time your cluster is frozen during instance recovery situations.

In a RAC environment, the FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET initialization parameter is used to bound the entire instance recovery time, assuming it is instance recovery for single instance death.

Note: If you really want to have small instance recovery time by setting

FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET, you can safely ignore the alert log messages indicating to raise its

value.

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 14 - 8

QUESTION NO: 38

A policy-managed RAC database that hosts the ACCOUNTS service has only three instances

running rather than the usual four on a six-node cluster.

Five of the six cluster nodes are active and the sixth (RACNODE6) is down for maintenance.

You decide to check the state of the servers In the server pools to see if there are problems with

the OLTP pool to which the ACCOUNTS service has been assigned.

You used the crsctl status server -f command and see that the RACNODE3 node has

STATE=VISIBLE.

What is true about this situation?

A. The Cluster Synchronization Services Daemon (cssd) is running and RACNODE3 is considered to be part of the cluster, but the Cluster Ready Services Daemon (crsd) is currently not running.

B. Both the Cluster Ready Services Daemon (crsd) and the Cluster Synchronization Service Daemon (cssd) are running on RACNODE3, but RACNODE3 is currently being moved to another server pool.

C. The Cluster Ready Services Daemon (crsd) is running and RACNODE3 is considered to be a part of the cluster, but the Cluster Synchronization Services Daemon (cssd) is currently not running.

D. Neither the Cluster Ready Services Daemon (crsd) nor the Cluster Synchronization Services Daemon (cssd) is running on RACNODE3.

Answer: A

Explanation:

VISIBLE

Servers that have Oracle Clusterware running, but not the Cluster Ready Services daemon (crsd), are put into the VISIBLE state. This usually indicates an intermittent issue or failure and Oracle Clusterware trying to recover (restart) the daemon. Oracle Clusterware cannot manage resources on servers while the servers are in this state.

http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E11882_01/rac.112/e16794/admin.htm#CHDBIACG

Table 2-1 Server Attributes

Attribute

Description

NAME

The node name of the server. A server name can contain any platform-supported characters except the exclamation point (!) and the tilde (~). A server name cannot begin with a period, or with ora. This attribute is required.

ACTIVE_POOLS

A space-delimited list of the names of the server pools to which a server belongs. Oracle Clusterware manages this list, automatically.

STATE

A server can be in one of the following states:

ONLINE

The server is a member of the cluster and is available for resource placement.

OFFLINE

The server is not currently a member of the cluster. Subsequently, it is not available for resource placement.

JOINING

When a server joins a cluster, Oracle Clusterware processes the server to ensure that it is valid for resource placement. Oracle Clusterware also checks the state of resources configured to run on the server. Once the validity of the server and the state of the resources are determined, the server transitions out of this state.

LEAVING

When a planned shutdown for a server begins, the state of the server transitions to LEAVING, making it unavailable for resource placement.

VISIBLE

Servers that have Oracle Clusterware running, but not the Cluster Ready Services daemon (crsd), are put into the VISIBLE state. This usually indicates an intermittent issue or failure and Oracle Clusterware trying to recover (restart) the daemon. Oracle Clusterware cannot manage resources on servers while the servers are in this state.

RECONFIGURING

When servers move between server pools due to server pool reconfiguration, a server is placed into this state if resources that ran on it in the current server pool must be stopped and relocated. This happens because resources running on the server may not be configured to run in the server pool to which the server is moving. As soon as the resources are successfully relocated, the server is put back into the ONLINEstate.

Use the crsctl status server command to obtain server information.

STATE_DETAILS

This is a read-only attribute that Oracle Clusterware manages. The attribute provides additional details about the state of a server. Possible additional details about a server state are:

Server state: ONLINE:

  • AUTOSTARTING RESOURCES
  • Indicates that the resource autostart procedure (performed when a server reboots or the Oracle Clusterware stack is restarted) is in progress for the server.
  • AUTOSTART QUEUED
  • The server is waiting for the resource autostart to commence. Once that happens, the attribute value changes to AUTOSTARTING RESOURCES.

Server state: RECONFIGURING:

  • STOPPING RESOURCES
  • Resources that are restricted from running in a new server pool are stopping.
  • STARTING RESOURCES
  • Resources that can run in a new server pool are starting.
  • RECONFIG FAILED
  • One or more resources did not stop and thus the server cannot transition into the ONLINE state. At this point, manual intervention is required. You must stop or unregister resources that did not stop. After that, the server automatically transitions into the ONLINE state.

Server state: JOINING:

  • CHECKING RESOURCES
  • Whenever a server reboots, the Oracle Clusterware stack restarts, or crsd on a server restarts, the policy engine must determine the current state of the resources on the server. While that procedure is in progress, this value is returned.

Use the crsctl status server command to obtain server information.

QUESTION NO: 39

Choose three correct statements about ASM disk group attributes set from the ASMCA Create Disk Group

A. The field labeled ASM Compatibility sets the compatible.asm attribute.

B. When creating a disk group with ASMCA, the default setting for the ASM Compatibility field (compatible.asm) is 10.1.

C. The Database Compatibility field (compatible.rdbms) sets the minimum version level for any database instance that is allowed to mount the disk group.

D. To use ADVM volumes, ADVM Compatibility (compatible.advm) must be set to 11.2.0 or later and ASM Compatibility must be 11.2.0 or later.

E. Advancing the values for disk group compatibility attributes can be reversed if desired.

Answer: A,C,D

Explanation:

A.True

B.FALSE

http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E16655_01/server.121/e17612/asmca.htm#CIABECDB

The default disk group compatibility settings are 11.2 for Oracle ASM compatibility, 10.1 for database compatibility, and no value for Oracle ADVM compatibility. For information about disk group compatibility attributes, see "Disk Group Compatibility". For information about disk discovery, see "Oracle ASM Disk Discovery" and "ASM_DISKSTRING".

C.TRUE

http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E16655_01/server.121/e17209/statements_5009.htm#sthref4643

Determines the minimum COMPATIBLE database initialization parameter setting for any database instance that is allowed to use the disk group.

D.True

The compatible.advm attribute of the disk group must be 11.2.0 or higher before you can create an ADVM volume in the disk group

d60488gc11_sg1-2

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 10 - 13

E.FALSE

Advancing the values for disk group compatibility attributes is an irreversible operation.

d60488gc11_sg1-2

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 2 - 48

QUESTION NO: 40

You have configured your eight-node cluster to use GNS.

The network administrator has established delegated subdomain for the Custer which is

MYCLUST.EXAMPLE.COM

DHCP has been configured so that the cluster now manages ip addresses within the cluster Select

three responses that describe the VIPs that will exist In this configuration.

A. 3 GNS VIPs

B. 8 Node VIPs

C. 3 SCAN VIPs

D. 1 GNS VIP

E. 3 Node VIPs

Answer: B C D

explanation

8 node vips as count of nodes

3 scan vips - 3scan vips it is default

1 gns vip as requirment for gns

QUESTION NO: 41

On the OUI Grid Plug and Play information page, you can configure GRID Naming Service (GNS). What will be the SCAN Name field default to if you enter cluster01 in the cluster Name field and cluster01.example.com in the GNS Sub Domain field?

A. cluster01.example.com

B. cluster01-qns.example.com

C. cluster0l-scan.cluster0l.example.com

D. cluster—vip.example.com

Answer: C

Explanation:

by default SCAN will be in scan-name

Explanation:

If you specify a GNS domain, then the SCAN name defaults to clustername-scan.

GNS_domain. Otherwise, it defaults to clustername-scan.current_domain. For example, if you

start Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation from the server node1, the cluster name is mycluster,

and the GNS domain is grid.example.com, then the SCAN Name is mycluster-scan.grid.example.com.

Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide

QUESTION NO: 42

You have a four-node cluster with four node VIPS and three scan VIPS already In use after Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.

You plan to manage a customer-developed, web-based application with the Oracle Grid Infrastructure to provide high availability.

Which two statements are true about the vip application resource that must be created?

A. The vip application must be active on the same subnet and ethernet adaptor as the

Interconnect.

B. The vip application must be active on the same subnet and ethernet adaptor as the public ip Address.

C. The vip application must not be online on the same node as any of the scan vips.

D. The vip application must be active on a different node than the application depending on the by using the dispersion start dependency in the resource definition.

E. The vip application must be enabled to run as the root user.

Answer: B,E

Explanation:

Creating an Application VIP by Using crsctl

On Linux and UNIX operating systems, an application VIP must run as root. If the VIP was

not added as root, you must ensure that the VIP can run as root:

1. Log in as root and run the following command:

# crsctl setperm resource MyAppsVip –o root

2. Run this command to enable the Oracle Database installation owner to run this script:

# crsctl setperm resource MyAppsVip –u user:oracle:r-x

Note: Currently, the USR_ORA_VIP parameter is ignored in GNS/DHCP-enabled clusters.

The appvipcfg script assumes that the default ora.vip network resource (ora.net1.network) is used as the default. In addition, it is also assumed that a default

app.appvip type is used for those purposes.

As a rule, the network number for the network on which the hostname resolves (public network) is the first network (1). The other networks used by the cluster are assigned arbitrarily. The networks used by the node can be viewed with ifconfig -a on Linux and ipconfig -a on Windows, but he network administrator must tell you which network is used for which purpose: public, private, and storage network.

D60488GC11

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 5 – 27,28

# Grid_home/bin/appvipcfg create -network=1 -ip=148.87.58.196 -vipname=appsVIP -user=root

The script only requires a network number (default is 1), the IP address, and a name for the VIP resource, as well as the user that owns the application VIP resource. A VIP resource is typically owned by root because VIP related operations require root privileges.

Oracle’ Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide

11g Release 2 (11.2)

Defining Resource Dependencies

Dispersion: This indicates that the resource will not be located on the same server as dependent resources, if possible.

D60488GC11

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 5 – 25

dispersion

If you specify the dispersion start dependency for a resource, then Oracle Clusterware starts this resource on a server that has the fewest number of resources to which this resource has dispersion. Resources with dispersion may still end up running on the same server if there are not enough servers to disperse them to.

Oracle’ Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide

11g Release 2 (11.2)

My opinion: answers A,B,C,D is incorrect.

QUESTION NO: 43

In the high availability services' provided by Oracle Clusterware are used to protect Oracle

resource such as RAC database instances, RAC database services, and other components of the

Oracle Infrastructure, and non-Oracle resources as well.

Which two statements are true about the high availability capabilities of Oracle HA services?

A. RAC databases may have their instances failed over in some cases.

B. ASM instances may be failed over if fewer than three nodes remain In the cluster, so that there are always at least three ASM instances available.

C. If a node fails, then all resources that were active on that node will be failed over to a surviving node if any exists.

D. If a node fails, then cluster resources that were active on that node may be failed over to a surviving node if any exists, but local resources are not failed over.

E. HA services will only fail over a resource upon failure of the node where the resource was

active.

Answer: D,E

Explanation:

Resource Types

Local resource: These are server-centric resources; the type name is local_resource. These run

locally on individual servers of the cluster and are not relevant outside of the scope of the server.

Cluster resource: Cluster-aware resource types (type name is cluster_resource) are aware of the

cluster environment and are subject to cardinality and cross-server switchover and failover. The

state of cluster resources is relevant in the context of the cluster.

D60488GC11

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration

QUESTION NO: 44

Under which account(s) can the Oracle Clusterware processes run for the Linux platform?

A. only the root account

B. only the Grid Infrastructure owner account

C. only the database software owner account

D. some under the Grid Infrastructure owner account and some under the root account

E. some under the database software owner account and some under the root account

Answer: D

Explanation:

Because Oracle Clusterware works closely with the operating system, system

administrator privileges are required for some installation tasks. In addition, some Oracle

Clusterware processes must run as the special operating system user, root.

Oracle Database 2 Day + Real Application Clusters Guide

QUESTION NO: 45

Identify the three valid storage options for Grid Infrastructure voting disk and Install.

A. a certified Cluster File System (CFS)

B. a certified Network File System (NFS)

C. ASM Cluster File System (ACFS)

D. Automatic Storage Management (ASM)

E. shared disk slices (block or raw devices)

Answer: A,B,D

Explanation:

Shared Storage Planning for Grid Infrastructure

Storage Option

Voting/ OCR

Oracle Software

Automatic Storage Manager (ASM)

Yes

No

ASM Cluster File System (ACFS)

No

Yes

Oracle Cluster File System (OCFS2)

Yes

Yes

Red Hat Global File System (GFS)

Yes

Yes

NFS (certified only)

Yes

Yes

Shared disk slices (block or raw devices)

No

No

d60488gc11

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 2 - 4

QUESTION NO: 46

Which two conditions are required by the ASM fast mirror resynchronization to track block

changes for a set period of time before dropping the disk from the disk group?

A. Redundancy is normal or high.

B. compatibility. rdbms is set to a value of at least 11. l.

C. disk_repair_time is set to a nondefault value.

D. block_change_tracking IS enabled.

E. db_block_checking is enabled.

F. resumable_timeout is set to a nondefault value.

Answer: A,B

Explanation

ASM Fast Mirror Resync

Enabled when COMPATIBLE.RDBMS >= 11.1

Whenever ASM is unable to write an extent, ASM takes the associated disk offline. If the

corresponding disk group uses ASM mirroring (NORMAL or HIGH redundancy), at least one mirror

copy of the same extent exists on another disk in the disk group.

Before Oracle Database 11g, ASM assumed that an offline disk contains only stale data and no

longer reads from such disks. Shortly after a disk is put offline, ASM drops it from the disk group

by re-creating the extents allocated to the disk on the remaining disks in the disk group using

mirrored extent copies. This process is quite resource intensive and can take hours to complete. If

the disk is replaced or the failure is repaired, the disk must be added again and another rebalance

operation must take place.

D60488GC11

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 8 – 32

QUESTION NO: 47

I he ASM instance in your environment can support databases from version 10.2.0.4 through

11.2.0.1 You want to use all ASM functionality possible for each database, including OCR and

voting files In the ASM. What is the proper setting for the ASM diskgroup attribute on diskgroups

being used by all the instances?

A. Set compatible.asm to 11.2 and compatible . rdbms to 10.2.

B. Set compatible.asm to 10.2 and compatible . rdbms to 10.2.

C. Set compatible.asm to 11.2 and compatible . rdbms to 11.2.

D. Set compatible.asm to 10.2 and compatible . rdbms to 11.2.

Answer: A

Explanation:

D60488GC11

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 8 – 32

Disk Group Compatibility Attributes

COMPATIBLE.ASM

The value for the disk group COMPATIBLE.ASM attribute determines the minimum software

version for an Oracle ASM instance that can use the disk group. This setting also affects the

format of the data structures for the Oracle ASM metadata on the disk. The format of other file

contents is determined by Oracle ASM Dynamic

Volume Manager (Oracle ADVM) and the database instance.

For Oracle ASM in Oracle Database 11g, 10.1 is the default setting for the COMPATIBLE.ASM

attribute when using the SQL CREATE DISKGROUP statement, the ASMCMD mkdg command,

and Oracle Enterprise Manager Create Disk Group page. When creating a disk group with

ASMCA, the default setting is 11.2.

COMPATIBLE.RDBMS

The value for the disk group COMPATIBLE.RDBMS attribute determines the minimum

COMPATIBLE database initialization parameter setting for any database instance that is allowed

to use the disk group. Before advancing the COMPATIBLE.RDBMS attribute, ensure that the

values for the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter for all of the databases that access the disk

group are set to at least the value of the new setting for COMPATIBLE.RDBMS.

For example, if the COMPATIBLE initialization parameters of the databases are set to either 11.1

or 11.2, then COMPATIBLE.RDBMS can be set to any value between 10.1 and 11.1 inclusively.

Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator’s Guide

11g Release 2 (11.2)

QUESTION NO: 48

A third party application has provided files containing the command syntax required to register and

manage the application for high availability with Oracle Grid Infrastructure.

The command to define the application is as follows:

crsctl add resource LongApp -type cluster_resource -attr

“ACTION_SCRIPT=/u01/ogi/scripts/longapp.scr , PLACEMENT=restricted ,

HOSTING_MEMBERS=RACNODE1 RACNODE2 , CHECK_INTERVAL=30

,START_DEPENDENCIES=hard(LongAppvip) , STOP_DEPENDENCIES=hard (LongAppvip),

RESTART_ATTEMPTS=2″

Which two statements are true about the behavior of this resource after it is added?

A.It will be a policy-managed resource using the server pool containing nodes RACNODE1 and RACNODE2.

B.The LongAppvip vip resource must be activated to successfully activate this resource, but will not be activated automatically if not already active.

C.The LongAppvip vip resource must be stopped before this resource is stopped.

D.It will be an administrator-managed resource hosted by nodes RACNODE1 and RACNODE2.

Answer: B,D

Explanation:

Configurable Resource Attributes

HOSTING_MEMBERS

A space-separated, ordered list of cluster server names that can host a resource. This attribute is

required only when using administrator management, and when the value of the PLACEMENT

attribute is set to favored or restricted. When registering applications as Oracle Clusterware

resources, use the SERVER_POOLS attribute, instead.

START_DEPENDENCIES

hard([intermediate:][global:]{resource_name | type:resource_type})’Specify a hard start

dependency for a resource when you want the resource to start only when a particular resource or

resource of a particular type starts.

weak([concurrent:][global:][uniform:]{resource_name | type:resource_type})’Specify a weak start

dependency for a resource when you want that resource to start despite whether named

resources are running, or not. An attempt to start this resource also attempts to start any

resources on which this resource depends if they are not running.

STOP_DEPENDENCIES

hard([intermediate:][global:][shutdown:]{resource_name | type:resource_type})’Specify a hard

stop dependency for a resource that you want to stop when named resources or resources of a

particular resource type stop.

Oracle’ Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide

11g Release 2 (11.2)

QUESTION NO: 49

Which command will set full debugging for the communications and resource management

components; of the CRS module on nodes host01 and host03?

A. srvctl set log -m CRS -C CRSCTI 5, CRSCOMM 5 -n host0l,host03

B. ocrconfig set log CRS "CRSRTI , CRSCOMM : 5 " -nodelist host 01, host03

C. crsctl set log CRS "CRSRTI : 5 , CRSCOMM : 5" -nodelisthost0l, host03

D. crsctl lsmodules crs set log CRSRTI : 5, CRSCOMM: 5 -nodelist host0l, host03

Answer: C

Explanation:

You can enable debugging for Oracle Clusterware resources by issuing crsctl set log and crsctl set trace commands, using the following syntax:

crsctl set {log | trace} resource “resource_name=debugging_level”

Run the crsctl set command as the root user, and supply the following information:

• resource_name: The name of the resource to debug.

• debugging_level: A number from 1 to 5 to indicate the level of detail you want the

debug command to return, where 1 is the least amount of debugging output and 5 provides the most detailed debugging output.

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 6 - 13

QUESTION NO: 50

You have an ASM cluster and you want to terminate all the ASM instances. Assume that the

database Instances supported by the ASM are already shut down. What must you know to select

the appropriate command for this operation?

A. Are the OCR and voting disk files stored In ASM diskgroups?

B. Are the SYSTEM and SYSAUS tablespaces stored In ASM diskgroups?

C. Is the undo tablespace stored in ASM diskgroups?

D. Are the redo log files stored in ASM diskgroups?

Answer: A

Explanation:

Oracle strongly recommends that you shut down all database instances that use the

Oracle ASM instance and dismount all file systems mounted on Oracle ASM Dynamic Volume

Manager (Oracle ADVM) volumes before attempting to shut down the Oracle ASM instance.

If Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) or voting files are stored in a disk group, the disk group can only

be dismounted by shutting down the Oracle ASM instance as part of shutting down the

clusterware on a node. To shut down the clusterware, run crsctl stop crs.

Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator’s Guide

QUESTION NO: 51

Which are the key factors that you should consider before converting a single-Instance database

Oracle Real Application Cluster (RAC) database to guarantee a successful media recovery?

A. If the database is in archive log mode, the archive file format requires a thread number.

B. The archive logs from all nodes must be accessible to all nodes in the cluster database.

C. The storage option must be Automatic Storage Management (ASM).

D. All database files must be migrated to Oracle Managed Files (OMF).

Answer: A,B

Explanation:

considerations before converting single-instance databases to Oracle RAC:

  • Backup procedures should be available before converting from a single-instance Oracle Database to Oracle RAC. For archiving with Oracle RAC environments, the archive file format requires a thread number.
  • The archived logs from all instances of an Oracle RAC database are required for media recovery. Because of this, if you archive to a file and you do not use a cluster file system, or some other means to provide shared file systems, then you require a method of accessing the archive logs from all nodes on which the cluster database has instances.
  • By default, all database files are migrated to Oracle Managed Files (OMF). This feature simplifies table space creation, ensures data file location consistency and compliance with OFA rules, and reduces human error with data file management.

Before you use the DBCA to convert a single-instance database to a RAC database, ensure that

your system meets the conditions:

  • It is a supported hardware and operating system configuration.
  • It has shared storage. A supported Cluster File System, NFS mount, or ASM is available and accessible from all nodes.
  • Your applications have no design characteristics that preclude their use with cluster database processing.
  • You can also use Enterprise Manager and the rconfig utility to perform the single instance to RAC conversion.

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 11 - 23

QUESTION NO: 52

You are managing a three-instance policy-managed RAC database PROD. You created a service

called GL for the PROD database by using the following command:

[oracIe@gr7597~]$ srvctl add service -d PROD -s GL -g SP1 -c singleton -y manual

Examine the following output:

[oracIe@gr7597~]$ srvctl config database -d PROD -a

Database unique name: PROD

Database name: PROD

Oracle home: /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1

Oracle user: oracle

Spfile: +DATA/PROD/spfileRACDB.ora

Domain:

Start options: open

Stop options: immediate

Database role: PRIMARY

Management policy: AUTOMATIC

Server pools: SP1

Database instances:

Disk Groups: DATA, FRA

Services:

Database is enabled

Database is policy managed

[oracIe@gr7597~]$ crsctl stat res ora.PROD.db

NAME=ora.PROD.db

TYPE=cluster_resource

TARGET=ONLINE

STATE=ONLINE on gr7597 ONLINE on gr7602 ONLINE on gr7633

[oracIe@gr7597~]$ crsctl stat serverpool ora.SP1

NAME=ora.SP1

ACTIVE_SERVERS=gr7597 gr7602 gr7633

[oraclegr7597-]$ crsctl stat res ora.prod.gl.svc

NAME=ora.prod.gl.svc

TYFE=ora.service.type

TARGET=ONLINE

STATE=ONLINE on gr7597

Which three steps are required to enable ODP.NET clients that connect to the GL service to receive FAN High Availability Events?

A. Enable Advanced Queuing notifications by using SRVCTL as shown in the following command:

$ srvctl modify service -d prod -s gl -q TRUE -j LONG

B. Execute the following statement for the users that will be connecting by way of the .Net

Application, where user_name is the user name:

EXECUTE DBMS_AQADM.GRANT_QUEUE_PRIVILEGE( ‘DEQUEUE’, ‘ SYS.SYS$SERVICE_METRICS’, user_name ) ;

C.Enable Transparent Application Failover (TAF), either on the client or for the service.

D.Enable Fast Connection Failover for ODP.NET connection pools by subscribing to FAN High Availability events. Do this by setting the HA events connection string attribute to true at connection time.

E.Link client applications with the client thread or operating system library.

Answer: A,B,D

Explanation:

Enabling ODP.NET Clients to Receive FAN High Availability Events Perform the following steps to enable FAN for ODP.NET clients:

Enable Advanced Queuing notifications for a service by using SRVCTL as shown in the following example:

srvctl modify service -d crm -s odpnet.example.com -q TRUE

Grant permissions on the internal event queue table by executing the following command for the users that will be connecting by way of the ODP.NET application, where user_name is the database user name:

EXECUTE DBMS_AQADM.GRANT_QUEUE_PRIVILEGE(‘DEQUEUE’,'SYS.SYS$SERVICE_METRICS’,user_name);

Enable Fast Connection Failover for ODP.NET connection pools by subscribing to FAN high availability events. To enable FCF, include “HA Events=true” and “pooling=true” (the default value) in the connection string, as shown in the following example where user_name is the name of the database user and password is the password for that user:

con.ConnectionString =“User Id=user_name;Password=password;Data Source=odpnet;” +“Min Pool Size=10;Connection Lifetime=120;Connection Timeout=60;” + “HA Events=true;Incr Pool Size=5;Decr Pool Size=2″;

Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide

11g Release 2 (11.2)

QUESTION NO: 53

Which two statements are true regarding the Active Session History (ASH) reports for RAC?

A. They provide details about Oracle databases for all current sessions, and history of past session all RAC nodes.

B. They provide statistics about Oracle databases for the active sessions on all the RAC nodes.

C. They report on data captured for active sessions. The volume of data is directly related to the work being performed by sessions.

D. They report on data captured for active sessions. The volume of data is directly related to the number of sessions on the system.

Answer: B,C

Explanation:

Active Session Session History (ASH) is an integral part of the Oracle Database self-management framework and is useful for diagnosing performance problems in Oracle RAC environments. ASH report statistics provide details about Oracle Database session activity. Oracle Database records information about active sessions for all active Oracle RAC instances and stores this

data in the System Global Area (SGA). Any session that is connected to the database and using CPU is considered an active session. The exception to this is sessions that are waiting for an event that belongs to the idle wait class.

ASH reports present a manageable set of data by capturing only information about active sessions. The amount of the data is directly related to the work being performed, rather than the number of sessions allowed on the system. ASH statistics that are gathered over a specified duration can be put into ASH reports.

Each ASH report is divided into multiple sections to help you identify short-lived performance problems that do not appear in the ADDM analysis. Two ASH report sections that are specific to Oracle RAC are Top Cluster Events and Top Remote Instance.

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 14 - 43

QUESTION NO: 54

Which two statements are true about instance recovery in a RAC environment?

A. Parallel instance recovery will work even if the recovery_parallelism initialization parameter set to 0 or 1.

B. Increasing the size of the default buffer cache can speed up instance recovery because instance recovery may use as much as 50 percent of the default buffer cache for recovery buffers.

C. The fast_start_mttr_target initialization parameter includes both instance startup and recovery time.

D. The fast__start_mttr_target initialization parameter specifies only the instance recovery time.

Answer: B,D

Explanation:

Many sites run with too few redo logs that are too small. Small redo logs cause system checkpoints to continuously put a high load on the buffer cache and I/O system. If there are too few redo logs, then the archive cannot keep up, and the database will wait for the archive process to catch up. With the Fast-Start Fault Recovery feature, the FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET initialization parameter simplifies the configuration of recovery time from instance or system failure.

FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET specifies a target for the expected mean time to recover (MTTR),that is, the time (in seconds) that it should take to start up the instance and perform cache recovery.

Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide

QUESTION NO: 55

Which two statements are true regarding undo management in the RAC environment?

A. You can use Automatic Undo Management (AUM) in some of the instances and manual undo

management in the rest of the instances in a RAC database.

B. In a policy-managed RAC database, Oracle automatically allocates the undo tablespace even the Oracle Managed Files (OMF) is disabled in a database.

C. In a policy-managed RAC database, Oracle automatically allocates the undo tablespace if the database is OMF enabled.

D. You can dynamically switch undo tablespace assignments by executing the undo tablespace

statement from any instance in a administrator managed database.

Answer: C,D

Explanation:

You can dynamically switch undo tablespace assignments by executing the ALTER SYSTEM

SET UNDO_TABLESPACE statement. You can run this command from any instance.

For policy-managed databases, Oracle automatically allocates the undo tablespace when the

instance starts if you have OMF enabled.

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 12 - 17

QUESTION NO: 56

Which three statements are true about services and the Resource Manager?

A. The Resource Manager can manage the relative priority of services within an instance by

binding services directly to consumer groups if services are mapped to consumer groups by the DBA.

B. When a client connects using a service, the service can be mapped to a consumer group,

enabling the Resource Manager to manage work requests by service in the order of their

importance.

C. The srvctl utility is used to map services to consumer groups.

D. The Resource Manager offers benefits In managing workloads because priority is given to

business functions rather than the sessions that support those business functions.

Answer: A,B,D

Explanation:

C.FALSE

Usage: srvctl modify service -d <db_unique_name> -s <service_name> [-g <pool_name>] [-c {UNIFORM | SINGLETON}] [-P {BASIC|NONE}] [-l [PRIMARY][,PHYSICAL_STANDBY][,LOGICAL_STANDBY][,SNAPSHOT_STANDBY]] [-y {AUTOMATIC | MANUAL}][-q {true|false}] [-x {true|false}] [-j {SHORT|LONG}] [-B {NONE|SERVICE_TIME|THROUGHPUT}] [-e {NONE|SESSION|SELECT}] [-m {NONE|BASIC}] [-z <integer>] [-w <integer>] [-t <edition>]

-d <db_unique_name> Unique name for the database

-s <service> Service name

-g <pool_name> Server pool name

-c {UNIFORM | SINGLETON} Service runs on every active server in the server pool hosting this service (UNIFORM) or just one server (SINGLETON)

-P {NONE | BASIC} TAF policy specification

-l <role> Role of the service (primary, physical_standby, logical_standby, snapshot_standby)

-y <policy> Management policy for the service (AUTOMATIC or MANUAL)

-e <Failover type> Failover type (NONE, SESSION, or SELECT)

-m <Failover method> Failover method (NONE or BASIC)

-w <integer> Failover delay

-z <integer> Failover retries

-t <edition> Edition (or "" for empty edition value)

-j <clb_goal> Connection Load Balancing Goal (SHORT or LONG). Default is LONG.

-B <Runtime Load Balancing Goal> Runtime Load Balancing Goal (SERVICE_TIME, THROUGHPUT, or NONE)

-x <Distributed Transaction Processing> Distributed Transaction Processing (TRUE or FALSE)

-q <AQ HA notifications> AQ HA notifications (TRUE or FALSE)

-h Print usage

A resource consumer group (consumer group) is a collection of user sessions that

are grouped together based on their processing needs. When a session is created, it is

automatically mapped to a consumer group based on mapping rules that you set up. As a

database administrator (DBA), you can manually switch a session to a different consumer group.

Before you enable the Resource Manager, you must specify how user sessions are assigned to

resource consumer groups. You do this by creating mapping rules that enable the Resource

Manager to automatically assign each session to a consumer group upon session startup, based

upon session attributes.

Oracle Database Resource Manager (the Resource Manager) enables you to manage multiple

workloads within a database that are contending for system and database resources.

In addition, the Database Resource Manager can map services to consumer groups. Therefore,

you can automatically manage the priority of one service relative to others. You can use consumer

groups to define relative priority in terms of either ratios or resource consumption.

Oracle Database Administrator’s Guide

QUESTION NO: 57

You notice that there is a very high percentage of wait time for the eng: HW: contention event in your RAC database that has frequent insert operations.

Which two recommendations may reduce this problem?

A. shorter transactions

B. increasing sequence cache sizes

C. using reverse key indexes

D. uniform and large extent sizes

E. automatic segment space management

F. smaller extent sizes

Answer: D,E

explanation

Therefore, the most common symptoms for this scenario include:

• A high percentage of wait time for enq: HW – contention

• A high percentage of wait time for gc current grant events

The former is a consequence of the serialization on the HWM enqueue, and the latter is because of the fact that current access to the new data blocks that need formatting is required for the new block operation. In a RAC environment, the length of this space management operation is proportional to the time it takes to acquire the HWM enqueue and the time it takes

to acquire global locks for all the new blocks that need formatting. This time is small under normal circumstances because there is never any access conflict for the new blocks. Therefore, this scenario may be observed in applications with business functions requiring a lot of data loading, and the main recommendation to alleviate the symptoms is to define uniform and large extent sizes for the locally managed and automatic space managed segments that are subject to high-volume inserts

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 14 - 26

QUESTION NO: 58

You are managing RAC database with policy managed services. The database is started by using an SPFILE.

Which two statements are true regarding initialization parameters In a RAC environment?

A. All initialization parameters must have identical settings on all instances.

B. All instances In the cluster database use the same spfile.

C. To change values for initialization parameters for an instance, you must log In to that instance.

D. All initialization parameters for all instances can be changed from any instance In a RAC database.

Answer: B,D

Explanation:

RAC Initialization Parameter Files

An SPFILE is created if you use the DBCA.

The SPFILE must be created in an ASM disk group or a cluster file system file.

All instances use the same SPFILE.

If the database is created manually, create an SPFILE from a PFILE.

SPFILE Parameter Values and RAC

You can change parameter settings using the ALTER SYSTEM SET command from any instance

D60488GC11

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 12 – 22, 23

QUESTION NO: 59

You need to set up a three-Instance RAC database. The data files and fast recovery area will be

stored in ASM diskgroups called +data and + fra, respectively. The ASM disk groups will be mounted on all ASM Instances.

Which are the two best location options for archivelogs so that they can be accessed during recovery without DBA intervention?

A. Cluster File System with each instance writing to a shared location

B. Cluster File System with each instance writing to a separate location as long as all the locations are In directories under the same mount point

C. the ASM diskgroup +fra with the db_recovery_file_dest parameter set to the same value on all instances

D. a raw or block device

Answer: A,C

Explanation:

The primary consideration when configuring archiving is to ensure that all archived redo logs can be read from every node during recovery, and if possible during backups. During recovery, because the archived log destinations are visible from the node that performs the recovery, Oracle RAC can successfully recover the archived redo log data. The fast recovery area for an Oracle RAC database must be placed on an Oracle ASM disk group, a cluster file system, or on a shared directory that is configured through a network file system file for each Oracle RAC instance. In other words, the fast recovery area must be shared among all of the instances of an Oracle RAC database. The preferred configuration for Oracle RAC is to use Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) for storing the fast recovery area, using a different disk group for your recovery set than for your data files. The location and disk quota must be the same on all instances. Oracle recommends that you place the fast recovery area on the shared Oracle ASM disks. In addition, you must set the DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST and DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST_SIZE parameters to the same values on all instances.

Oracle Database 2 Day + Real Application Clusters Guide

QUESTION NO: 60

Which two statements are true regarding the Automatic Workload Repository (AWR) In a rac environment ?

A. The AWR includes time model statistics based on time usage for activities displayed In the V$SYS_TIME_MODEL and V$SESS_TIME_MODEL Views.

B. The AWR is controlled by the statistics_level initialization parameter and it must be set to TYPICAL Or BASIC

C. The Manageability Monitor Processes (MMON) process gathers statistics every hour from

every instance and creates an AWR snapshot and stores it In the SGA.

D. The MMON process gathers statistics from its' own instance and kicks off statistics collection form other instances every hour from other instances and creates an AWR snapshot which is written to the sysaux tablespace.

Answer: A,D

Explanation:

The Automatic Workload Repository (AWR) collects, processes, and maintains

performance statistics for problem detection and self-tuning purposes. This data is both in memory

and stored in the database. The gathered data can be displayed in both reports and views.

The statistics collected and processed by AWR include:

V$SYS_TIME_MODEL and V$SESS_TIME_MODEL views

V$SESSTAT views

Activity

MMON (Memory Monitor) is a background process that gathers memory statistics (snapshots)

stores this information in the AWR (automatic workload repository). MMON is also responsible for

issuing alerts for metrics that exceed their thresholds.

Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide

QUESTION NO: 61

Assume that you want to make a connection to the ERP service associated with a newly created RAC database called PROD on a cluster called cluster01 that consists of three nodes: node1, node2, and node3.

Which two connect strings are correctly configured to connect to the ERP service?

A.

ERP=(DESCRIPTION =

(LOAD_BALANCE=on )

(ADDRESS =(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=cluster01-scan)(PORT=1521))

(CONNECT_DATA=( SERVICE_NAME=ERP)))

B.

ERP= (DESCRIPTION=

(LOAD_BALANCE=on )

(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=node1-vip)(PORT=1521))

(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=node2-vip)(PORT=1521))

(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=node3-vip)(PORT=1521))

(CONNECT_DATA=(SERVICE_NAME=ORCL)))

C.

ERP=(DESCRIPTION=

(LOAD_BALANCE=on )

(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=cluster01-scan1)(PORT=1521))

(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=cluster01-scan2)(PORT=1521))

(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=cluster01-scan3)(PORT=1521))

(CONNECT_DATA=( SERVICE_NAME=ERP)))

D.

url=”jdbc:oracle:thin:@(DESCRIPTION=

(LOAD_BALANCE=on)

(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=cluster01-scan)(PORT=1521)))

(CONNECT DATA=(SERVICE NAME=ERP)))”

Answer: A,D

Explanation:

Note: The LOAD_BALANCE=ON clause is used by Oracle Net to randomize its progress

through the protocol addresses of the connect descriptor. This feature is called client

connection load balancing.

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 15 - 11

QUESTION NO: 62

When creating an Oracle Cluster database using DBCA the “Memory size (SGA and PGA) field is

supplied on value of 2000 MB. Identify the default block Size used for the database.

A.2 KB

B.4 KB

C.8 KB

D.16 KB

E.32 KB

Answer: C

Explanation

Type of LimitLimit Value

Minimum2k. Must be a multiple of operating system physical block size MaximumOperating system dependent, but never more than 32 KB DBCA tab sizing In this tab, you specify the smallest block size and the maximum number of operating system user processes that can simultaneously connect to the database. In the Block Size list, enter the size in bytes or accept the default. Oracle Database data is stored in these blocks. One data block corresponds to a specific number of bytes of physical space on disk. While using pre-defined templates, this field is not enabled since the database will be created with the default block size of 8 KB. But while using the custom option, you can change block size. Selecting a block size other than the default 8 KB value requires advanced knowledge and should only be done when absolutely required.

Oracle’ Database 2 Day DBA

QUESTION NO: 63

Examine the following output:

[oracle@gr5153~]$srvctl add service -d RACDB -s erp -g pool1 -c uniform -y manual

[oracle0gr5153~]$srvctl start service -d RACDB -s ERP

[oracle@gr5153~]$crsctl stat res ora.racdb.erp.svc NAME=ora.racdb.erp.svc

TYPE=ora.service.type

TARGET=ONLINE, ONLINE, ONLINE STATE=ONLINE on gr5118, ONLINE on gr5152, ONLINE

on gr5153

[oracle@gr5153~]$ srvctl config database -d RACDB

Database unique name: RACDB

Database name: RACDB

Oracle home:/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1

Oracle user:oracle

Spfile:+DATA/RACDB/spfileRACDB.ora

Domain:

Start options:open

Stop options:immediate

Database role:PRIMARY

Management policy:AUTOMATIC

Server pools:POOL 1

Database instances:

Disk Groups:DATA, FRA

Services:ERP

Database is policy managed

$srvctl stop database -d RACDB -o immediate

Which two statements are true regarding the srvctl stop command?

A.It will shut down all the instances of the RACDB database.

B.It will shut down only the RACDB instance and the ERP service on the node on which the Command is executed.

C.It will shut down only the database instance on the node on which the command is executed.

D.It will stop the ERP service related to the RACDB database on all the nodes.

Answer: A,D

Explanation:

Shut down all Oracle RAC instances on all nodes. To shut down all Oracle RAC

instances for a database, enter the following command, where db_name is the name of the

database:

srvctl stop database -d db_name

Stops a database, its instances, and its services. When the database later restarts, services with

AUTOMATIC management start automatically but services with MANUAL management policy

must be started manually.

Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide

QUESTION NO: 64

You are managing a policy-managed database called RACDB.

Examine the output given below:

You used these commands to add the service erp:

Which statement is true regarding the srvctl stop instance command?

A.It will shut down the racdb_1 instance and the ERP service running on node gr7597.

B.It will shut down the racdb_1 instance, and the ERP service will fail over to an available Instance.

C.It will shut down the racdb_1 instance, but the ERP service will keep running on node gr7597

D.It will shut down the racdb_1 instance and the ERP service running on ih.il Instance However Oracle Clusterware can restart the ERP service running on node gr7597.

E.It will shut down the racdb_1 instance and stop the ERP service on all the nodes

Answer: A

Explanation:

Stops instances and stops any services running on specified instances, unless you specify the -f option. If you specify -f, then the services fail over to an available instance when the instance stops.

Syntax and Options

Use the srvctl stop instance command with the following syntax:

srvctl stop instance -d db_unique_name {[-n node_name]|[-i "instance_name_list"]} [-o stop_options] [-f]

Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide

QUESTION NO: 65

Which three statements are true about the management of Oracle Services?

A.To manage workloads or a group of applications, you can define services for a particular application or a subset of an application’s operations.

B.Similar work can be categorized under services to ease workload management.

C.Users who share a service should have different service-level requirements.

D.Oracle Enterprise Manager or SRVCTL should be used to control cluster-managed services, not DBMS_SERVICE.

Answer: A,B,D

Explanation:

Oracle Services

  • To manage workloads or a group of applications, you can define services for a particular application or a subset of an application’s operations.
  • You can also group work by type under services.
  • For example OLTP users can use one service while batch processing can use another to connect to the database.
  • Users who share a service should have the same service level requirements.
  • Use srvctl or Enterprise Manager to manage services,not DBMS_SERVICE.

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 15 - 3

QUESTION NO: 66

You notice that there is a very high percentage of wait time for RAC database that has frequent insert operations.

Which two recommendations may reduce this problem?

A.shorter transactions

B.increasing sequence cache sizes

C.using reverse key indexes

D.uniform and large extent sizes

E.automatic segment space management

F.smaller extent sizes

Answer: D,E

explanation:

A certain combination of wait events and statistics presents itself in applications where the insertion of data is a dominant business function and new blocks have to be allocated frequently to a segment. If data is inserted at a high rate, new blocks may have to be made available after unfruitful searches for free space. This has to happen while holding the high-water mark (HWM) enqueue.

Therefore, the most common symptoms for this scenario include:

• A high percentage of wait time for enq: HW – contention

• A high percentage of wait time for gc current grant events

The former is a consequence of the serialization on the HWM enqueue, and the latter is because of the fact that current access to the new data blocks that need formatting is required for the new block operation. In a RAC environment, the length of this space management operation is proportional to the time it takes to acquire the HWM enqueue and the time it takes to acquire global locks for all the new blocks that need formatting. This time is small under normal circumstances because there is never any access conflict for the new blocks. Therefore, this scenario may be observed in applications with business functions requiring a lot of data loading, and the main recommendation to alleviate the symptoms is to define uniform and large extent sizes for the locally managed and automatic space managed segments that are subject to high-volume inserts.

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 14 - 26

QUESTION NO: 67

Examine the following details for a six-Instance RAC database:

What is the most prominent problem indicated by the above output?

A.high input/output (I/O) delays

B.CPU saturation and memory depletion

C.large number of untuned queries from one of the nodes

D.misconfigured or faulty interconnect

Answer: D

Explanation:

Symptoms:

Summary:

In Oracle RAC environments, RDBMS gathers global cache work load statistics which are reported in STATSPACK, AWRs and GRID CONTROL. Global cache lost blocks statistics ("gc cr block lost" and/or "gc current block lost") for each node in the cluster as well as aggregate statistics for the cluster represent a problem or inefficiencies in packet processing for the interconnect traffic. These statistics should be monitored and evaluated regularly to guarantee efficient interconnect Global Cache and Enqueue Service (GCS/GES) and cluster processing. Any block loss indicates a problem in network packet processing and should be investigated.

The vast majority of escalations attributed to RDBMS global cache lost blocks can be directly related to faulty or mis-configured interconnects. This document serves as guide for evaluating and investigating common (and sometimes obvious) causes.

Even though much of the discussion focuses on Performance issues, it is possible to get a node/instance eviction due to these problems. Oracle Clusterware & Oracle RAC instances rely on heartbeats for node memberships. If network Heartbeats are consistently dropped, Instance/Node eviction may occur. The Symptoms below are therefore relevant for Node/Instance evictions

Primary:

  • "gc cr block lost" / "gc current block lost" in top 5 or significant wait event

Secondary:

  • SQL traces report multiple gc cr requests / gc current request /
  • gc cr multiblock requests with long and uniform elapsed times
  • Poor application performance / throughput
  • Packet send/receive errors as displayed in ifconfig or vendor supplied utility
  • Netstat reports errors/retransmits/reassembly failures
  • Node failures and node integration failures
  • Abnormal cpu consumption attributed to network processing

Cause:

1.Faulty or poorly seated cables/cards/Switches

….

24.

Mos Troubleshooting gc block lost and Poor Network Performance in a RAC Environment (Doc ID 563566.1)

QUESTION NO: 68

What does a high gc current block busy event value indicate?

A.Access to cached data blocks was delayed because they were busy either in the remote or the

local cache.

B.A large number of requested blocks were not cached In any instance.

C.Asynchronous input/output (I/O) is disabled.

D.Delay in processing has occurred In the GCS, caused by CPU saturation and would have to be

solved by additional CPUs and load-balancing.

Answer: A

Explanation:

Analyzing Performance Using GCS and GES Statistics

This section describes how to monitor GCS performance by identifying data blocks and objects which are frequently used (hot) by all instances. High concurrency on certain blocks may be identified by GCS wait events and times.

The gc current block busy wait event indicates that the access to cached data blocks was delayed because they were busy either in the remote or the local cache. This could be caused by any of the following:

  • The blocks were pinned
  • The blocks were held up by sessions
  • The blocks were delayed by a log write on a remote instance

A session on the same instance was already accessing a block which was in transition between instances and the current session needed to wait behind it (for example, gc current block busy)

Oracle’ Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide

11g Release 2 (11.2)

QUESTION NO: 69

Examine the following details from the AWR report for your three-instance RAC database:

Which inferences is correct?

A.There are a large number of requests for cr blocks or current blocks currently in progress.

B.Global cache access is optimal without any significant delays.

C.The log file sync waits are clue to cluster interconnect latency.

D.To determine the frequency of two-way block requests you must examine other events In the report.

Answer: B

Explanation:

QUESTION NO: 70

You are managing a policy-managed Real Application Cluster (RAC) database, RACDB with

Oracle Managed Files (OMF) enabled. Examine the following outputs:

You added a new server to the server pool using the following command:

[oracle@gr5153 ~]$ srvctl modify srvpool -g POOL1 -i 0 -l 2 -u 4 -n gr5119

The instance on the newly added node is started by the Oracle Clusterware. Automatic Storage

Management (ASM) is used as the storage option.

Which statement is true regarding the redo log files for the instance?

A.Oracle Clusterware automatically creates and enables a new thread of redo

B.You must create redo log groups for the newly added service.

C.Redo log members will not be created automatically because storage option used is ASM.

D.The newly added instance must save full online log groups tracked in the control file.

Answer: A

Explanation:

For a policy-managed database, when you add a new node to the cluster, it is placed in the Free pool by default. If you increase the cardinality of the database server pool, then an Oracle RAC instance is added to the new node, racnode3, and it is moved to the database server pool. No further action is necessary.

Add shared storage for the undo tablespace and redo log files.

If OMF is not enabled for your database, then you must manually add an undo tablespace and

redo logs. You should create redo log groups only if you are using administrator-managed databases. For policy-managed databases, if an instance starts due to a change in server pool cardinality, then Oracle Database automatically creates redo log files, enables a redo thread for the instance if there is not a redo thread allocated to that instance, and creates the undo tablespace if there is not an undo tablespace allocated to that instance. The database must be using Oracle Managed Files and Oracle ASM in this situation.

Oracle Database 2 Day + Real Application Clusters Guide

QUESTION NO: 71

Which three statements ate true about services and Transparent Application Failover (TAF)?

A.If TAF has been configured for a service, sessions using that service fail over to a surviving instance when an outage occurs.

B.The TAF setting on a service can be NONE, BASIC, PRECONNECT, or POSTCONNECT, and overrides any TAF setting in the client connection definition.

C.TAF can restart a query after failover has completed but for other statements, such as INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE, the application must resubmit the transaction.

D.The TAF setting for a client connection overrides any TAF setting in the service definition.

E.Services simplify the deployment of TAF because by defining a TAF policy for a service, all connections using this service will automatically have TAF enabled.

Answer: A,C,E

Explanation:

Services and Transparent Application Failover

  • Services simplify the deployment of Transparent Application Failover (TAF).
  • You can define a TAF policy for a service and all connections using this service will automatically have TAF enabled.
  • The TAF setting on a service can be NONE, BASIC, or PRECONNECT and overrides any TAF setting in the client connection definition
  • To define a TAF policy for a service, the srvctl utility can be used as shown below

srvctl modify service -s gl.example.com -q TRUE -P BASIC -e SELECT -z 180 -w 5 -j LONG

Servicese and

When Oracle Net Services establishes a connection to an instance, the connection remains open until the client closes the connection, the instance is shut down, or a failure occurs. If you configure TAF for the connection, then Oracle Database moves the session to a surviving instance when an outage occurs.

TAF can restart a query after failover has completed but for other types of transactions, such as INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE, the application must roll back the failed transaction and resubmit the transaction. You must re-execute any session customizations, in other words, ALTER SESSION statements, after failover has occurred. However, with TAF, a connection is not moved during normal processing, even if the workload changes over time.

Services simplify the deployment of TAF. You can define a TAF policy for a service, and all connections using this service will automatically have TAF enabled. This does not require any client-side changes. The TAF setting on a service overrides any TAF setting in the client connection definition. To define a TAF policy for a service, use the srvctl utility as in the following example:

srvctl modify service -s gl.example.com -q TRUE -P BASIC -e SELECT -z 180 -w 5 -j LONG

Note: TAF applies only to an admin-managed database and not to policy-managed databases.

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 15 - 13

QUESTION NO: 72

You are managing a single-instance database and your company wants to convert the single instance database to an Oracle RAC database. You plan to use the rconfig utility to accomplish this task.

What are the prerequisites for converting the single-instance database to an Oracle RAC database?

A.Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Database software are installed on all target nodes.

B.The Oracle Database binary is enabled for Oracle RAC on all target nodes.

C.The database being converted has been backed up successfully.

D.Oracle Clusterware is stopped.

E.Automatic Storage Management (ASM) must be enabled and the ASM disk should be available on all nodes.

Answer: A,B,C,E

Explanation:

Before you use the DBCA to convert a single-instance database to a RAC database, ensure that

your system meets the conditions:

  • • It is a supported hardware and operating system configuration.
  • • It has shared storage. A supported Cluster File System, NFS mount, or ASM is available and accessible from all nodes.
  • • Your applications have no design characteristics that preclude their use with cluster

database processing.

You can also use Enterprise Manager and the rconfig utility to perform the single instance

to RAC conversion.

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 11 - 23

Issues for Converting Single Instance Databases to Oracle RAC

•Backup procedures should be available before conversion takes place.

•Archiving in Oracle RAC environments requires a thread number in the archive file format.

•The archived logs from all instances of an Oracle RAC database are required for media recovery.

•By default, all database files are migrated to Oracle Managed Files (OMF).

QUESTION NO: 73

The DBA has executed the command:

srvctl add service -d PROD -s BATCH -g SP2 -c singleton -y manual

What is the result of this command?

A.Creates a singleton service named batch using the server pool sp2 with a manual service

management policy.

B.Creates a singleton service named batch for the prod database by using only server pool SP2

with a manual service management policy.

C.Creates a singleton service named batch, which runs by default in the prod database by using

th server pool SP2 with a manual service management policy, but can fail over to other databases.

D.Creates a singleton service, which is only used for batch workloads for the prod database by

using only server pool sp2 with a manual service management policy.

Answer : B

Answer:

http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E11882_01/server.112/e25494/restart005.htm#autoId12

Option

Description

-d db_unique_name

Unique name for the database. Must match the DB_UNIQUE_NAMEinitialization parameter setting. If DB_UNIQUE_NAME is unspecified, then this option must match the DB_NAME initialization parameter setting. The default setting for DB_UNIQUE_NAME uses the setting for DB_NAME.

-s service_name

The database service name

-l [PRIMARY][,PHYSICAL_STANDBY][,LOGICAL_STANDBY][,SNAPSHOT_STANDBY]

A list of service roles. Applicable in Oracle Data Guard environments only. When this option is present, upon database startup, the service is started only when one of its service roles matches the current database role.

-y {AUTOMATIC | MANUAL}

Management policy for the service. If AUTOMATIC (the default), the service is automatically started upon restart of the database, either by a planned restart (with SRVCTL) or after a failure. Automatic restart is also subject to the service role, however (the -l option). If MANUAL, the service is never automatically restarted upon planned restart of the database (with SRVCTL). A MANUAL setting does not prevent Oracle Restart from monitoring the service when it is running and restarting it if a failure occurs.

-e {NONE |SESSION | SELECT}

Failover type. For standalone servers, applicable in Oracle Data Guard environments only.

-m {NONE | BASIC}

Failover method. For standalone servers, applicable in Oracle Data Guard environments only.

-w integer

Failover delay. For standalone servers, applicable in Oracle Data Guard environments only.

-z integer

Failover retries. For standalone servers, applicable in Oracle Data Guard environments only.

-j {SHORT | LONG}

Connection load balancing goal

-B {SERVICE_TIME | THROUGHPUT | NONE}

Run-time load balancing goal

-q {TRUE | FALSE}

Send Oracle Advanced Queuing (AQ) HA notifications. For standalone servers, applicable in Oracle Data Guard environments only.

-t edition_name

The initial session edition of the service

When an edition is specified for a service, all subsequent connections that specify the service use this edition as the initial session edition. However, if a session connection specifies a different edition, then the edition specified in the session connection is used for the initial session edition.

SRVCTL does not validate the specified edition name. During connection, the connect user must have USE privilege on the specified edition. If the edition does not exist or if the connect user does not have USE privilege on the specified edition, then an error is raised.

QUESTION NO: 74

You are managing a policy-managed three-instance RAC database. You ran database ADDM for the database and noticed gc current block congested and gc cr block congested waits.

What are two possible reasons for these wait events?

A.The wait events indicate a delay in processing has occurred in the Global Cache Services

(GCS), which is usually caused by high load.

B.The wait times indicate that the blocks must wait after initiating a gc block request, for the round trip from the start of the wait until the blocks arrive.

C.The wait events indicate that there is block contention resulting in multiple requests for access to local blocks.

D.The wait events indicate that the local instance making the request for current or consistent

read blocks was waiting for logical I/O from its own buffer cache at the same time.

Answer: A,B

Explanation:

Gc [current/cr][block/grant] congested – means that it has been received eventually but with a delay because of intensive CPU consumption, memory lack, LMS overload due to much work in the queues, paging, swapping. This is worth investigating as it provides a room for improvement.

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 14 - 14

QUESTION NO: 75

Which two statements are true regarding the Average Active Sessions chart on the performance page

A.It shows active aggregate wait class statistics across all the instances In the cluster database.

B.It shows active aggregate wait class per instance for all the instances In the cluster database.

C.If the Average Active Sessions chart displays a large number of sessions waiting, indicating

internal contention, but the throughput is high, then the situation may be acceptable.

D.If the Average Active Sessions chart displays a large number of sessions waiting, indicating

internal contention, but the throughput is low, then the CPU needs to be upgraded

Answer: A,C

Explanation

Determining Cluster Host Load Average

Cluster Host Load Average chart in the Cluster Database Performance page shows potential problems that are outside the database. The chart shows maximum, average, and minimum load values for available nodes in the cluster for the previous hour.

If the load average is higher than the average of the total number of CPUs across all the hosts

in the cluster, then too many processes are waiting for CPU resources. SQL statements that are not tuned often cause high CPU usage. Compare the load average values with the values displayed for CPU Used in the Average Active Sessions chart. If the sessions value is low and the load average value is high, this indicates that something else on the host, other than your database, is consuming the CPU.

You can click any of the load value labels for the Cluster Host Load Average chart to view more detailed information about that load value. For example, if you click the Average label, the Hosts: Average Load page appears, displaying charts that depict the average host load for up to four nodes in the cluster.

You can select whether the data is displayed in a summary chart, combining the data for each node in one display, or using tile charts, where the data for each node is displayed in its own chart. You can click Customize to change the number of tile charts displayed in each row or the method of ordering the tile charts.

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 14 - 30

Explanation:

Chart for Average Active Sessions

The Average Active Sessions chart in the Cluster Database Performance page shows potential

problems inside the database. Verifying the Interconnect Settings for Oracle RAC Categories,

called wait classes, show how much of the database is using a resource, such as CPU or disk I/O.

Comparing CPU time to wait time helps to determine how much of the response time is consumed

with useful work rather than waiting for resources that are potentially held by other processes.

Compare the peaks on the Average Active Sessions chart with those on the Database Throughput

charts. If the Average Active Sessions chart displays a large number of sessions waiting,

indicating internal contention, but throughput is high, then the situation may be acceptable.

Oracle Database 2 Day + Real Application Clusters Guide

QUESTION NO: 76

You notice that there is a very high percentage of wait time for the gc current split event in your RAC database that has frequent insert operations.

Which two recommendation would you make to reduce this problem?

A.shorter transactions

B.using hash partitioned global indexes

C.uniform and large extent sizes

D.automatic segment space management

E.smaller extent sizes

F.increasing sequence cache sizes

Answer: B,F

Explanation

Index Block Contention: Considerations

In application systems where the loading or batch processing of fata is a dominant business function, there may be performance issues affecting response times because of the high volume of data inserted into indexes. Depending on the access frequency and the number of access frequency and the number of processes concurrently inserting data, indexes can become hot spots and contention can be exacerbated by:

  • • Ordered, monotonically increasing key values in the index (right-growing trees)
  • • Frequent leaf block splits
  • • Low tree depth: All leaf block access go through the root block.

A leaf or branch block split can become an important serialization point if the particular leaf block or branch of the tree is concurrently accessed. The tables in the slide sum up the most common symptoms associated with the splitting of index blocks, listing wait events and statistics that are commonly elevated when index block splits are prevalent. As a general recommendation, to alleviate the performance impact of globally hot index blocks and leaf

block splits, a more uniform, less skewed distribution of the concurrency in the index tree should be the primary objective. This can be achieved by:

  • • Global index hash partitioning
  • • Increasing the sequence cache, if the key value is derived from a sequence
  • • Using natural keys as opposed to surrogate keys
  • • Using reverse key indexes

QUESTION NO: 77

Your two-instance RAC database is running in ARCHVELOG. The instance running on node1.,fails and this failure Is ejected by the instance running on node2,which indicates the recovery process for node1.

Which, process will read the redo log of the failed instance to identify the database blocks that need to be recovered during the recovery process, after the configuration of enqueue and cache part of Global resource Directory (GRD)?

A.PMON

B.MMON

C.SMON

D.GES

E.GCS

Answer C

SMON (System MONitor) is an Oracle background process created when you start a database instance. The SMON process performs instance recovery, cleans up after dirty shutdowns and coalesces adjacent free extents into larger free extents.SMON wakes up every 5 minutes to perform housekeeping activities. SMON must always be running for an instance. If not, the instance will terminate.

The graphic illustrates the degree of database availability during each step of Oracle instance recovery:

A. Real Application Clusters is running on multiple nodes.

B. Node failure is detected.

C. The enqueue part of the GRD is reconfigured; resource management is redistributed to

the surviving nodes. This operation occurs relatively quickly.

D. The cache part of the GRD is reconfigured and SMON reads the redo log of the failed

instance to identify the database blocks that it needs to recover.

E. SMON issues the GRD requests to obtain all the database blocks it needs for recovery.

After the requests are complete, all other blocks are accessible.

F. The Oracle server performs roll forward recovery. Redo logs of the failed threads are

applied to the database, and blocks are available right after their recovery is completed.

G. The Oracle server performs rollback recovery. Undo blocks are applied to the database

for all uncommitted transactions.

H. Instance recovery is complete and all data is accessible.

Note: The dashed line represents the blocks identified in step 2 in the previous slide. Also, the

dotted steps represent the ones identified in the previous slide.

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 14 - 7

QUESTION NO: 78

You have two administrator-defined server pools on your eight-node cluster called OLTP and DSS.

Hosts RACNODE3, RACNODE4, and RACNODE5 are currently assigned to the DSS Pool.

Hosts RACNODE6, RACNODE7, and RACNODE8 are assigned to the OLTP Pool.

Hosts RACNODE1 and RACNODE2 are assigned to the Generic pool.

You are patching the Oracle Grid Infrastructure in a rolling fashion for your cluster and you have completed patching nodes RACNODE3, RACNODE4, RACNODE5, and RACNODE6, but you have not patched nodes RACNODE1 and RACNODE2.

While examining the status of RACNODE2 software, you get this output:

$ crsctl query crs softwareversion

Oracle Clusterware version on node [RACNODE2] is [11.2.0.2.0]

$ crsctl query crs activeversion

Oracle Clusterware active version on node [RACNODE2] is [11.2.0.1.0]

Which two statements describe the reasons for the active versions on the nodes of the cluster?

A.The active version is 11.2.0.2.0 on RACNODE3, RACNODE4, and RACNODE5 because all the

nodes in the DSS server pool have the same installed version.

B.The active version is 11.2.0.1.0 on RACNODE6, RACNODE7, and RACNODE8 because some

nodes in the cluster still have version 11.2.0.1.0 installed.

C.The active version is 11.2.0.1.0 on RACNODE6, RACNODE7, and RACNODE8 because some

nodes in the OLTP Pool still have version 11.2.0.1.0 installed.

D.The active version is 11.2.0.1.0 on RACNODE3, RACNODE4, and RACNODE5 because some

nodes in the cluster still have version 11.2.0.1.0 installed.

Answer: B,D

explanation:

A.FALSE because version is 11.2.0.1

B.TRUE

C.FALSE because there is no dependency with pool and active version ( it is cluster wide )

D.TRUE

Checking Software Versions

When a rolling patch or upgrade is being performed, two versions of the software will temporarily coexist in the cluster. The software version is the latest version that is installed on an individual node. You can check the software version registered in the OCR with the following command:

$ crsctl query crs softwareversion

Oracle Clusterware version on node [host01] is [11.1.0.7.0]

The active version is the lowest version anywhere in the cluster. It applies to the cluster and not an individual node. The active version is not updated until the last node has been updated to the newest version. You can check the active version with the following command:

$ crsctl query crs activeversion

Oracle Clusterware active version on the cluster is [11.1.0.6.0]

Permanently operating Oracle Clusterware at different versions is not supported. This is allowed only for a short duration—that is, the time it takes to apply the patchset or patch to the cluster.

Note: The version of Oracle Clusterware must be greater than the version running other Oracle

products such as the Real Application Clusters (RAC) database and ASM software versions.

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 4 - 34

QUESTION NO: 79

The disk groups on the current ASM instance at version 11.2 were configured to support a version 10.2 database instance. The 10.2 instance has the COMPATIBLE parameter defined as 10.2.0. The compatible.asm attribute is set to 11.2 for each disk group. The database has been upgraded to 11.2.

Which statement indicates the proper time to change the compatible.rdbms disk group attribute to 11.2?

A.Change the disk group attribute after the database instance COMPATIBLE parameter is upgraded to 11.2.

B.Change the disk group attribute after the database instance is started with the 11.2 software.

C.Change the disk group attribute after the database instance optimizer_features_enabled parameter is set to 11.2.

D. Change each disk group after the 11.2 features are required for use on the disk group.

E. Never, upgrading the attribute is not reversible.

Answer: A

Explanation:

COMPATIBLE.RDBMS - The value for the disk group COMPATIBLE.RDBMS attribute determines the minimum COMPATIBLE database initialization parameter setting for any database instance that is allowed to use the disk group.Before advancing the COMPATIBLE.RDBMS attribute, ensure that the values for the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter for all of the databases that access the disk group are set to at least the value of the new setting for COMPATIBLE.RDBMS.

Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator’s Guide

11g Release 2 (11.2)

QUESTION NO: 80

Your network administrator informs you that the Internet service provider is being changed in a

month’s time in conjunction with a data center move. You are asked to plan for the changes required in the Oracle Grid Infrastructure, which is set up to use GNS.

The IP addresses and subnets of the public network are to change.

Which two must be done in the Oracle Grid Infrastructure network setup to accommodate this change using the command-line Interfaces available?

A. The SCAN VIPs and node VIPs must be reconfigured using srvctl.

B. The SCAN VIPs and SCAN listener resources must be removed and added to obtain the new SCAN IP addresses from DHCP.

C. The interconnect must be reconfigured by using oifcfg, crsctl, and ifconfig.

D. The SCAN VIPs and node VIPs must be reconfigured by using oifcfg.

E. The Interconnect must be reconfigured by using srvctl.

Answer: C,D

Explanation:

How to Modify Public or Private Network Information in Oracle Clusterware [ID 283684.1]

1. Ensure Oracle Clusterware is running on ALL cluster nodes in the cluster

2. As grid user:

Get the existing information. For example:

$ oifcfg getif

eth1 100.17.10.0 global public

eth0 192.168.0.0 global cluster_interconnect

Add the new cluster_interconnect information:

$ oifcfg setif -global <interface>/<subnet>:cluster_interconnect

For example:

a. add a new interface bond0 with the same subnet

$ oifcfg setif -global bond0/192.168.0.0:cluster_interconnect

b. add a new subnet with the same interface name but different subnet or new interface name

$ oifcfg setif -global eth0/192.65.0.0:cluster_interconnect

or

$ oifcfg setif -global eth3/192.168.1.96:cluster_interconnect

1. This can be done with -global option even if the interface is not available yet, but this can not be done with -node option if the interface is not available, it will lead to node eviction.

2. If the interface is available on the server, subnet address can be identified by command:

$ oifcfg iflist

It lists the network interface and its subnet address. This command can be run even if Oracle Clusterware is not running. Please note, subnet address might not be in the format of x.y.z.0, it can be x.y.z.24, x.y.z.64 or x.y.z.128 etc. For example,

$ oifcfg iflist

lan1 18.1.2.0

lan2 10.2.3.64 << this is the private network subnet address associated with private network IP: 10.2.3.86

3. If it is for adding a 2nd private network, not replacing the existing private network, please ensure MTU size of both interfaces are the same, otherwise instance startup will report error:

ORA-27504: IPC error creating OSD context

ORA-27300: OS system dependent operation:if MTU failed with status: 0

ORA-27301: OS failure message: Error 0

ORA-27302: failure occurred at: skgxpcini2

ORA-27303: additional information: requested interface lan1:801 has a different MTU (1500) than lan3:801 (9000), which is not supported. Check output from ifconfig command

Verify the change:

$ oifcfg getif

3. Shutdown Oracle Clusterware on all nodes and disable the Oracle Clusterware as root user:

# crsctl stop crs

# crsctl disable crs

4. Make the network configuration change at OS level as required, ensure the new interface is available on all nodes after the change.

$ ifconfig -a

$ ping <private hostname>

5. Enable Oracle Clusterware and restart Oracle Clusterware on all nodes as root user:

# crsctl enable crs

# crsctl start crs

6. Remove the old interface if required:

$ oifcfg delif -global <if_name>[/<subnet>]

eg:

$ oifcfg delif -global eth0/192.168.0.0

QUESTION NO: 81

The System Global Area (SGA) for the ASM instance contains distinct memory areas. Choose three areas that are contained within the ASM SGA.

A.Shared Pool

B.Buffer Cache

C.Log Buffer

D.Large Pool

E.ASM Cache

F.Streams Pool

Answer: A,D,E

explanation

The SGA in the ASM instance is divided into four primary areas as follows:

• Shared Pool: Used for metadata information

• Large Pool: Used for parallel operations

• ASM Cache: Used for reading and writing blocks during rebalance operations

• Free Memory: Unallocated memory available

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 1 - 51

QUESTION NO: 82

During the installation of Oracle Grid Infrastructure 11.2, it is possible to incorporate failure

isolation support by using Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI).

Which four statements regarding IPMI configuration are true?

A.Each cluster member node requires a Baseboard Management Controller (BMC), which runs a

firmware compatible with IPMI version 1.5.

B.The ethernet port on each cluster node used by BMC must be connected to the IPMI

management network.

C.Each node in the cluster must have an IPMI driver installed.

D.The cluster requires a dedicated network specifically for IPMI.

E.If you intend to use IPMI, you must provide an administration account username and password

when prompted during installation.

Answer: A,B,C,E

Explanation:

2.13.1 Requirements for Enabling IPMI

You must have the following hardware and software configured to enable cluster nodes to be managed with

IPMI:

Each cluster member node requires a Baseboard Management Controller (BMC) running firmware

compatible with IPMI version 1.5 or greater, which supports IPMI over LANs, and configured for remote

control using LAN.

Each cluster member node requires an IPMI driver installed on each node.

The cluster requires a management network for IPMI. This can be a shared network , but Oracle

recommends that you configure a dedicated network.

Each cluster member node's Ethernet port used by BMC must be connected to the IPMI management

network.

Each cluster member must be connected to the management network.

Some server platforms put their network interfaces into a power saving mode when they are powered off. In

this case, they may operate only at a lower link speed (for example, 100 MB, instead of 1 GB). For these

platforms, the network switch port to which the BMC is connected must be able to auto-negotiate down to

the lower speed, or IPMI will not function properly.

Have IPMI Configuration completed and have IPMI administrator account information

If you intend to use IPMI, then ensure BMC interfaces are configured, and have an administration account

username and password to provide when prompted during installation

.

For nonstandard installations, if you must change configuration on one or more nodes after installation (for

example, if you have different administrator usernames and passwords for BMC interfaces on cluster nodes),

then decide if you want to reconfigure the BMC interface, or modify IPMI administrator account information

after installation.Oracle® Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide

11g Release 2 (11.2) for Linux

QUESTION NO: 83

mounted: DATA and DATA2, but the results of the SHOW PARAMETER ASM_DISKGROUPS

command show only DATA as below:

What could have caused the DATA2 diskgroup to be mounted based on the information in the V$ASM_DISKGROUP view?

A.The DATA2 diskgroup contains the database files required to start a database instance that depends on this ASM instance.

B.The DATA2 diskgroup contains the voting files required for this cluster.

C.The DATA diskgroup has mirrored objects in the DATA2 diskgroup.

D.The DATA value In the parameter implies all diskgroup strings starting with data.

E.The DATA2 diskgroup contains the SPFILE needed to start the ASM instance.

Answer: B

Explanation:

  • •Disk groups specified in the ASM_DISKGROUPS initialization parameter
  • •Disk group used by Cluster Synchronization Services (CSS) for voting files
  • •Disk groups used by Oracle Clusterware for the Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR)
  • •Disk group used by the Oracle ASM instance to store the ASM server parameter file (SPFILE)

If no disk groups are found in the previous list, the Oracle ASM instance does not mount any

disk groups at startup.

In your practice cluster, the DATA disk group is mounted because it has the OCR, voting files,and SPFILE for the ASM instance in it. The FRA and ACFS disk groups are mounted at startup only when they are named in the ASM_DISKGROUPS initialization parameter.

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 7 - 5

QUESTION NO: 84

ETH0 is the public interface on all your RAC nodes.

ETH1 is the private interface on all your RAC nodes for use with the cluster interconnect.

ETH2 is used on all the RAC nodes for accessing storage on a filer using network attached storage (NAS).

With which interface are the SCAN and node VIPs (Virtual IP addresses) associated?

A.ETH0 for the node VIPs and ETH1 for the SCAN VIPs

B.ETH0 for both the node VIPs and the SCAN VIPs

C.ETH1 for both the node VIPs and the SCAN VIPs

D.ETH1 for the node VIPs and ETH0 for the SCAN VIPs

E.with both ETH0 and ETH1 for both the node VIPs and the SCAN VIPs

Answer: B

Explanation:

Each node must have at least two network adapters: one for the public network interface and the other for the private network interface or interconnect. In addition, the interface names associated with the network adapters for each network must be the same on all nodes.

For the public network, each network adapter must support TCP/IP. For the private network, the interconnect must support UDP (TCP for Windows) using high-speed network adapters and switches that support TCP/IP. Gigabit Ethernet or an equivalent is recommended.

Note: For a more complete list of supported protocols, see MetaLink Note: 278132.1

QUESTION NO: 85

Identify the three forms of link aggregation that are supported by Oracle Clusterware for the interconnect.

A.single switch active/standby configuration to increase redundancy for high availability

B.single switch active/active configuration to increase bandwidth for performance

C.multiswitch active/standby configuration to increase redundancy for high availability

D.multiswitch active/active configuration to increase bandwidth for performance

Answer: A,B,C

Interconnect Link Aggregation: Single Switch

  • Link aggregation can be used to increase redundancy for higher availability with an Active/Standby configuration.
  • •Link aggregation can be used to increase bandwidth for performance with an Active/Active configuration.

Interconnect Link Aggregation: Multiswitch

  • •Redundant switches connected with an Inter-Switch Trunkmay be used for an enhanced highly available design.
  • •This is the best practice configuration for the interconnect.

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 1 – 12,13,14

QUESTION NO: 86

Which three statements are true about ASM performance and scalability?

A.Disks in a diskgroup may be of varying speed and capacity without affecting performance.

B.Disks in a diskgroup should match in speed and capacity for best performance.

C.A database seldom needs more than two diskgroups: one for data and the other for a fast recovery area.

D.A database needs a separate diskgroup for each major tablespace, redo logs, and fast recovery area.

E.Multiple databases that use the same diskgroup make the best use of space.

F.Multiple databases that use a separate diskgroup for each database make the best use of space.

Answer: B,C,E

Explanation:

Performance, Scalability, and Manageability Considerations for Disk Groups

  • Create separate disk groups for database files and fast recovery area.
  • Disks in a disk group should have the same size and performance characteristics.
  • – Allows the disk group to deliver consistent performance
  • – Allows ASM to use disk space most effectively
  • – Allows operations with different storage requirements to be matched with different disk groups effectively
  • Using separate disk groups for each database as opposed to having multiple databases in a disk group has various benefits and drawbacks.

Housing multiple databases in a single disk group affords the most efficient use of space. However, any faults or maintenance that affects the disk group may affect many databases. Separate disk groups provide greater isolation from the effects of a fault or maintenance operation. However, to achieve this may consume more disk space and may require more disk group maintenance to balance disk resources.

D60488GC11

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 8 - 37

QUESTION NO: 87

Your Apache-based application resource called MyApp has a VIP application resource definition

and an application resource definition.

The application is administrator managed and is currently active on node RACNODE3.

You want to move it to host RACNODE4, which is one of the HOSTING_MEMBERS in the resource definition.

What is the most efficient method to move the application and the VIP?

A.Run crsctl relocate resource MyApp – n RACNODE4 – f.

B.Run crsctl stop resource MyApp -n RACNODE3 -f followed by crsctl start MyApp -n RACNODE4 -f.

C.Run crsctl stop resource MyApp -n RACNODE3 -f followed by crsctl relocate resource MyApp -n RACNODE4.

D.Run crsctl relocate resource MyApp -n RACNODE4.

Answer: A

explanation

To relocate an application and its required resources, use the -f option with the crsctl relocate resource command.

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 5 - 40

QUESTION NO: 88

You plan to use Enterprise Manager to locate and stage patches to your Oracle Home.

The software library has been configured to be downloaded to /u01/app/oracle and your “My Oracle Support” credentials have been entered. You want to start the provisioning daemon in order to use the deployment procedure manager to view, edit, monitor, and run deployment procedures.

How would you start the provisioning daemon?

A.using pafctl start

B.using crsctl start paf

C.using srvctl start paf

D.using emctl start paf

Answer: A

explanation:

Starting the Provisioning Daemon

The provisioning daemon is started with:

$ pafctl start

Enter repository user password :

Enter interval [default 3]:

Provisioning Daemon is Up, Interval = 3

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 4 - 26

QUESTION NO: 89

How does the Oracle Grid Infrastructure administrator determine the location of the Oracle

Clusterware voting disk?

A.Run cat /etc/oracle/vote.loc from any node.

B.Run srvctl query css votedisk from any node.

C.Run crsctl query css votedisk from any node.

D.Run select name, path from v$votedisk from any RAC database instance of any database on the cluster.

answer: C

explanation:

http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E11882_01/rac.112/e16794/crsref.htm#CHEJHJJG

Example

The crsctl query css votedisk command returns output similar to the following:

$ crsctl query css votedisk
## STATE File Universal Id File Name Disk group
-- ----- ----------------- --------- ---------
1. ONLINE 296641fd201f4f3fbf3452156d3b5881 (/ocfs2/host09_vd3) []
2. ONLINE 8c4a552bdd9a4fd9bf93e444223146f2 (/netapp/ocrvf/newvd) []
3. ONLINE 8afeee6ae3ed4fe6bfbb556996ca4da5 (/ocfs2/host09_vd1) []
Located 3 voting disk(s).

QUESTION NO: 90

Which three are components of Oracle HA Framework for protecting third-party applications using Oracle Clusterware?

A. resources

B. action programs

C. voting disks

D. application VIPS

E. SCAN VIPS

Answer: A,B,D

Oracle Clusterware HA Components

Several components are used to implement HA with Oracle Clusterware.

Component

Definition

Resource

An entity that Oracle Clusterware manages for HA such as an application

Action Program

A developed program that provides the logic for starting,stopping, and monitoring a resource

Privileges

Access and usage privileges for a resource allowing it to run as a different user than the Cluster Ready Services (CRS) user

Resource Dependency

A relationship among resources or applications that implies operational ordering

Application VIP

A VIP that an application has a dependency with

OCR

Storage mechanism for resource profiles,policies,and privileges

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 5 - 4

QUESTION NO: 91

What is the recommended procedure to shut down an ASM instance with a mounted ACFS file system at /u01/app/oracle/acfsmounts/vol1, where the volume name is VOL1 and the disk group name is DATA?

A.Issue the synchronize command for the file system twice. Then stop the ASM Instance with the SQL*Plus SHUTDOWN ABORT command.

B. Use the advmutil dismount /all /DATA command. Then stop the ASM instance with the SQL*Plus SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE command.

C. Use the /bin/umount /u01/app/oracle/acfsmounts/vol1 command. Then shut down the ASM instance with the SQL*PIus SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE command.

D. Use the SQL ALTER DISKGROUP VOLULE VOL1 DISMOUNT command. Then stop the ASM instance with the SQL*Plus SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE command.

E. Stop the ASM instance with the SQL*Plus SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE command.

Answer: C

Explanation:

A.FALSE this is useful action in critical situation

B.FALSE advmutil has no dismount clause

C.TRUE

Oracle ACFS and Dismount or Shutdown Operations

It is important to dismount any active file system configured with an Oracle ADVM volume device file before an Oracle ASM instance is shutdown or a disk group is dismounted. After the file systems are dismounted, all open references to Oracle ASM files are removed and associated disk groups can be dismounted or the instance shut down.

Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator’s Guide

11g Release 2 (11.2)

D.FALSE existing volume will prevent dismounting of diskgroup

E.FALSE

SQL> shutdown immediate;

ORA-15097: cannot SHUTDOWN ASM instance with connected client (process )

ORA-15487: cannot shutdown the ASM instance with an open ASM volume

SQL>

QUESTION NO: 92

Which interconnect design is NOT supported for Oracle Clusterware?

A.crossover cable design

B.single switch design

C.multiple switch design

D.redundant interconnect design

Answer: A

Explanation:

A simple network crossover cable may at first appear to be a low-cost alternative to connect a two-node

cluster, enabling you to create a directly linked network between two cluster nodes. However, this alternative is

not supported as an interconnect with RAC on Linux. Without the electrical isolation provided by a switch, NIC

hardware errors on one of the servers could also cause hardware errors on the other server, rendering the entire

cluster unavailable. This configuration also eliminates the option of a redundant networking configuration and

prevents the addition of more than two nodes to the cluster

QUESTION NO: 93

Which three statements are true about Clusterware resource debugging?

A. The crsctl command can be used to set debugging for Clusterware resources by using the

following syntax:

crsctl set log resource “resource_name:logging_level”.

B.Enabling logging for Clusterware resources can negatively affect cluster performance, so it

should be used only when required.

C. After collecting debugging data for a specific Clusterware resource, terminate the collection of debugging data by issuing the

crsctl set log resource “resource_name:stop” command.

D.Although the crsctl command can be used to dynamically affect logging for Clusterware

resources, you can also configure resource debugging automatically by specifying a logging_ievel clause in the Grid_Home/log/hostname/admin/clscfg.ini file.

E.Debugging cannot be set for user-defined resources.

Answer: A,B,D

explanation:

A.TRUE

B.TRUE

C.FALSE crsctl set log resource “resource_name:stop” command. no such command

D.TRUE

E.FALSE

example ( my resource to autostart dbconsole )

[grid@oel6-1 ~]$ crsctl get log res em_dbconsole

Get Resource em_dbconsole Log Level: 5

----

Enabling Resource Debugging

Oracle Support may request that you enable tracing to capture additional information for problem resolution with Oracle Clusterware resources. Because the procedures described here may affect performance, perform these activities only with the assistance of Oracle Support.

You can enable debugging for Oracle Clusterware resources by issuing crsctl set log and crsctl set trace commands, using the following syntax:

crsctl set {log | trace} resource “resource_name=debugging_level”

Run the crsctl set command as the root user, and supply the following information:

  • • resource_name: The name of the resource to debug.
  • • debugging_level: A number from 1 to 5 to indicate the level of detail you want the debug command to return, where 1 is the least amount of debugging output and 5 provides the most detailed debugging output.

You can dynamically change the debugging level in the crsctl command or you can configure an initialization file for changing the debugging level.

The example in the slide enables debugging for the ora.host01.vip resource. After you capture all trace information, do not forget to execute the corresponding crsctl set log res "<resource name>:0" commands.

QUESTION NO: 94

Various clients can access and manipulate ASM files.

Which two statements are true?

A.The DBMS_FILE_TRANSFER.COPY_FILE procedure can move a database file from one ASM to another ASM, but not to an operating system file system.

B.The ASMCMD cp command can move database files from a file system to ASM, but not from ASM to ASM.

C.The SQL*Plus command ALTER DISKGROUP orcl MOVE ‘+DATA/orcl/example01.dbf’ to ‘+OLDDATA/orcl/example01.dbf’ can move the example01 data file to a different diskgroup.

D.The DBMS_FILE_TRANSFER.GET_FILE procedure reads an ASM file from a remote machine and makes a local copy on an ASM or a file system.

E.The ASMCMD rm command will delete ASM files and directories, but not database files on an operating system file system.

Answer: D,E

explanation

DBMS_FILE_TRANSFER

COPY_FILE Procedure

This procedure reads a file from a source directory and creates a copy of it in a destination directory. The source and destination directories can both be in a local file system, or both be in an Automatic Storage Management (ASM) disk group, or between local file system and ASM with copying in either direction.

You can copy any type of file to and from a local file system. However, you can copy only database files (such

as datafiles, tempfiles, controlfiles, and so on) to and from an ASM disk group.

GET_FILE Procedure

This procedure contacts a remote database to read a remote file and then creates a copy of the file in the local file system or ASM. The file that is copied is the source file, and the new file that results from the copy is the destination file. The destination file is not closed until the procedure completes successfully.

Examples

CREATE OR REPLACE DIRECTORY df AS '+datafile' ;

GRANT WRITE ON DIRECTORY df TO "user";

CREATE DIRECTORY DSK_FILES AS ''^t_work^'';

GRANT WRITE ON DIRECTORY dsk_files TO "user";

-- asumes that dbs2 link has been created and we are connected to the instance.

-- dbs2 could be a loopback or point to another instance.

BEGIN

-- asm file to an os file

-- get an asm file from dbs1.asm/a1 to dbs2.^t_work^/oa5.dat

DBMS_FILE_TRANSFER.GET_FILE ( 'df' , 'a1' , 'dbs1', 'dsk_files' , 'oa5.dat' );

-- os file to an os file

-- get an os file from dbs1.^t_work^/a2.dat to dbs2.^t_work^/a2back.dat

DBMS_FILE_TRANSFER.GET_FILE ( 'dsk_files' , 'a2.dat' , 'dbs1', 'dsk_files' , 'a2back.dat' );

END ;

/

Oracle® Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference

11g Release 2 (11.2)

QUESTION NO: 95

The Oracle Grid Infrastructure administrator wants to perform daily checks on the integrity of the Clusterware files. Which three steps can be performed to determine the health of the OCR files and voting disks?

A.Run ocrcheck to verify the health of the OCR file only from the master node, which performs all input/output (I/O) operations on the OCR.

B.Run grep voting <grid_home>/log/<hostname>/cssd/ocssd.log from any cluster node.

C.Run cluvfy comp ocr -n all from any cluster node.

D.Run ocrcheck to verify the health of the OCR file from any cluster node.

E.Run votecheck to verify the health of the voting disk from any cluster node.

Answer: B,C,D

explanation:

A.FALSE OCR not OLR (LOCAL) can be checked on all nodes

B.TRUE

C.TRUE

D.TRUE

E.FALSE no such command

Checking the Integrity of Oracle Clusterware

Configuration Files

The following techniques are used to validate the integrity of Oracle Cluster configuration files.

Check the ocssd.log for voting disks issues.

$ grep voting <grid_home>/log/<hostname>/cssd/ocssd.log

Use the cluvfy utility or the ocrcheck command to check the integrity of the OCR.

$ cluvfy comp ocr –n all -verbose

$ ocrcheck

D60488GC11

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 3 - 8

QUESTION NO: 96

You decide to create a snapshot of your ACFS for backup and recovery purposes.

Which two tools are available to do this?

A.ASMCMD

B.SQL*Plus

C.ACFSUTIL

D.ADVMUTIL

E.Enterprise Manager

Answer: C,E

Explanation:

A.FALSE because asmcmd is used for asm files

B.FALSE to work with asm and oradb

C.TRUE as name says this tool is for work with acfs

D.FALSE advm has no snapshots

E.TRUE in enterprise manager we can do almost all

About Oracle ACFS Snapshots

Oracle ACFS snapshots are administered with the acfsutil snap commands. For information about

the acfsutil snap commands, refer to “acfsutil snap create”, “acfsutil snap delete”, and “acfsutil

snap info”.

You can also manage Oracle ACFS snapshots with Oracle Enterprise Manager. For information

about using Oracle Enterprise Manager, see “Managing Oracle ACFS Snapshots with Oracle

Enterprise Manager”.

Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator’s Guide

11g Release 2 (11.2)

QUESTION NO: 97

Directory structure in ASM has a default of

+<diskgroup>/<database>/<filetype>/<filename>.

The EXAMPLE tablespace was created with:

CREATE TABLESPACE EXAMPLE DATAFILE ‘+DATA/ORCL/oradata/example_01.dbf’

The asmcmd ls command shows:

ASMCMD>ls -l +DATA/ORCL/oradata/*

Type Redund Striped Type Sys Name

N example_01.dbf => +DATA/ORCL/DATAFILE/EXAMPLE.264.695918623

Which three statements can be verified by from the information provided?

A.The ASM file +DATA/ORCL/oradata/example_01.dbf has an alias of +DATA/ORCL/DATAFILE/EXAMPLE.264.695918623.

B.The ASM system file +DATA/ORCL/DATAFILE/EXAMPLE.264.695918623 has an alias of +DATA/ORCL/oradata/example_01.dbf.

C.The default path indicates that the file is an oradata file belonging to the ORCL database.

D.The default path indicates that the file is a data file belonging to the ORCL database.

E.+DATA/ORCL/oradata/example_01.dbf is the name of the file in V$DBFILE in the database instance.

F.+DATA/ORCL/DATAFILE/EXAMPLE.264.695918623 is the name of the file in V$DBFILE in the database instance.

Answer: B,D,F

Explanation:

Fully Qualified ASM File Names

Every file created in ASM gets a system-generated file name, known as the fully qualified file

name.

You cannot set the fully qualified file name.

ASM guarantees uniqueness within the ASM environment.

The fully qualified file name is used in database views that display Oracle Database file names.

D60488GC11

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 9 – 11

QUESTION NO: 98

Choose the two correct commands that will successfully create an ASM cluster file system (ACFS) and register the mount point on a Linux/UNIX system.

A.mkfs -t asm /dev/asm/testvol-461 -n “testvol”

B.mkfs -t acfs /dev/asm/testvol-461 “testvol”

C.crsctl -r mountpoint /dev/asm/testvol-461 /u01/app/grid/acfsmounts/acfs_testvol

D.acfsutil registry -a -f /dev/asm/testvol-461 /u01/app/grid/acfsmounts/acfs_testvol

Answer:B,D

Explanation:

A.FASLE no such fs type exists

B.TRUE

C.FALSE crsctl is not responsible for mount acfs volumes

D.TRUE

http://www.oracle.com/webfolder/technetwork/tutorials/obe/db/11g/r2/prod/storage/acfs/acfs.htm

create shared storage for trace files

oracle@sol-1:/u01/app/oracle$ mkdir /u01/app/oracle/acfsmount

oracle@sol-1:/u01/app/oracle$ ssh sol-2 mkdir /u01/app/oracle/acfsmount

load acfs

root@sol-1:/# /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/bin/acfsload start

ACFS-9327: Verifying ADVM/ACFS devices.

ACFS-9322: completed

root@sol-2:/# /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/bin/acfsload start

ACFS-9327: Verifying ADVM/ACFS devices.

ACFS-9322: completed

modify attributes

SQL> alter diskgroup RAC_ACFS set attribute 'compatible.asm' = '11.2';

SQL> alter diskgroup RAC_ACFS set attribute 'compatible.rdbms' = '11.2';

create volume

16:34:25 not connected> alter diskgroup rac_acfs add volume ora_diag size 4G;

-bash-3.2# mkfs -F acfs /dev/asm/ora_diag-37

-bash-3.2# mount -F acfs /dev/asm/ora_diag-37 /u01/app/oracle/acfsmount/

root@sol-2:/# /sbin/acfsutil registry -a /dev/asm/ora_diag-37 /u01/app/oracle/acfsmount/

acfsutil registry: mount point /u01/app/oracle/acfsmount successfully added to Oracle Registry

QUESTION NO: 99


Which three statements are true about Oracle Clusterware component log files?

A.Oracle RAC uses a common unified log directory structure to store all Oracle Clusterware component log files.

B.The consolidated directory structure simplifies diagnostic information collection and assists during data retrieval and problem analysis.

C.The Clusterware and Database log files are stored under the same unified directory structure.

D.The location of the log directory structure is <Grid_Home>/log/<hostname>.

E.The log directory structure is the same on UNIX and Linux systems, but different on Windows platforms.

Answer: A,B,D

explanation

Oracle Clusterware uses a unified log directory structure to consolidate the Oracle Clusterware component log files. This consolidated structure simplifies diagnostic information collection and assists during data retrieval and problem analysis.

The slide shows you the main directories used by Oracle Clusterware to store its log files:

• CRS logs are in <Grid_Home>/log/<hostname>/crsd/. The crsd.log file is archived every 10 MB (crsd.l01, crsd.l02, ...).

• CSS logs are in Grid_HOME /log/<hostname>/cssd/. The cssd.log file is archived every 20 MB (cssd.l01, cssd.l02, ...).

• EVM logs are in <Grid_Home>/log/<hostname>/evmd.

• SRVM (srvctl) and OCR (ocrdump, ocrconfig, ocrcheck) logs are in <Grid_Home>/log/<hostname>/client/ and

$ORACLE_HOME/log/<hostname>/client/.

• Important Oracle Clusterware alerts can be found in alert<nodename>.log in the <Grid_Home>/log/<hostname> director

QUESTION NO: 100

Your cluster has Oracle Grid Infrastructure installed and working to support RAC databases and

all the related resources.

There is also a vendor HA software on the cluster providing HA services for some non-Oracle applications. You want to remove the vendor HA software and use Oracle Grid Infrastructure to provide the HA framework for your applications.

The first application to be migrated to Oracle HA is used to display financial currency information at various fixed flat screens at a business park. This application must be owned by the Financial Application owner.

Which three components of the framework are required to support this application for HA?

A.an application VIP to support sending data to the screens

B.a resource definition defining the application and various HA attributes

C.privileges to permit the application to run as the correct user and to have the correct access rights to files

D.an action program called by the HA framework for starting, stopping, and monitoring the application

E.a resource dependency to make certain that the application VIP is started before the application is started and to start VIP automatically if it is down

Answer: B,C,D

explanation

example my em_dbconsole resource (just resource definition,action script and premissions )

Overview of Using Oracle Clusterware to Enable High Availability

To manage your applications with Oracle Clusterware:

1. Create an action script or use an existing agent.

2. Register your applications as resources with Oracle Clusterware.

If a single application requires that you register multiple resources, you may be required to define relevant

dependencies between the resources.

3. Assign the appropriate privileges to the resource.

4. Start or stop your resources.

Oracle® Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide

11g Release 2 (11.2)

QUESTION NO: 101

The original cluster on RACNODE1, RACNODE 2, RACNODE 3, and RACNODE4 had the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installed to support Grid Naming Service (GNS).

What should be done to verify that the two new nodes called RACNODE5, RACNODE6 are physically connected?

A.cluvfy stage -post crsinst -n RACNODE5,RACNODE6 -verbose

B.cluvfy stage -post nodeadd -n RACNODE5,RACNODE6 -verbose

C.cluvfy stage -post hacfg -verbose

D.cluvfy stage -post nodeadd -n all -verbose

Answer: B

explanation:

as i think this should be

[grid@oel6-1 ~]$ cluvfy comp nodereach -n oel6-1,oel6-2

….

Verification of node reachability was successful.

Completing OUI Silent Node Addition

Perform integrity checks on the cluster.

[grid@host01]$ cluvfy stage post nodeadd n host03 -verbose

D60488GC11

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 4 – 8

QUESTION NO: 102

Which three describe how often OCR backups are taken and how many are retained, according to the default backup schedule?

A.every 12 hours and the Clusterware keeps the last four copies

B.every 4 hours and the Clusterware keeps the last three copies

C.every day and the Clusterware keeps the last two copies

D.every day and the Clusterware keeps the last three copies

E.every week and the Clusterware keeps the last two copies

Answer: B,C,E

explanation

[grid@oel6-1 ~]$ ocrconfig -showbackup auto

oel6-1 2013/08/06 13:55:25 /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/cdata/oel6-scan/backup00.ocr

oel6-3 2013/08/06 08:40:34 /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/cdata/oel6-scan/backup01.ocr

oel6-3 2013/08/06 04:40:31 /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/cdata/oel6-scan/backup02.ocr

oel6-3 2013/08/04 16:40:04 /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/cdata/oel6-scan/day.ocr

oel6-1 2013/07/23 05:13:40 /u01/app/11.2.0/grid/cdata/oel6-scan/week.ocr

Files could be spread across nodes due to outages.

The backup frequency and retention policies are:

Every four hours: CRS keeps the last three copies.

At the end of every day: CRS keeps the last two copies.

At the end of every week: CRS keeps the last two copies.

D60488GC11

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 3 – 11

QUESTION NO: 103

The Oracle Grid Infrastructure administrator decides to make more copies of the voting disks that are currently stored in the ASM disk group +VOTE. How can this be done?

A.by running crsctl add css votedisk <path_to_new_voting_disk> to make a copy to a shared location on a shared device or file system

B.by running crsctl add css votedisk +VOTE, thereby adding another copy of the voting disk to the +VOTE disk group

C.by running srvctl replace votedisk +asm_disk_group on another disk group that has greater redundancy, thereby causing additional copies to be created

D.by running crsctl replace votedisk +asm_disk_group on another disk group that has greater redundancy, thereby causing additional copies to be created

Answer: D

explanation:

A. FALSE syntax is correct

CRS-4258: Addition and deletion of voting files are not allowed because the voting files are on ASM

B. FALSE number of voting disks are determinated by disk group redundancy

C. FALSE crsctl not srvctl

D.TRUE

QUESTION NO: 104

You plan to remove a node called RACNODE4 from a four-node cluster.

The cluster is running Oracle Grid Infrastructure 11g Release 2 and there is also a database home with cluster databases running Oracle Database version 11g Release 1. This older home supports different applications that have not been certified to run on the latest release.

The cluster databases for Oracle Database 11g Release 1 each had four Instances at one time, but currently only the first two nodes, RACNODE1 and RACNODE2, are running instances of those databases.

Which two additional steps are required when deleting a node from a cluster in this situation?

A.Run crsctl pin css -n RACNODE1, RACNODE2 as root if the nodes are unpinned.

B.Run crsctl pin css -n RACNODE4 as the Grid Infrastructure owner if RACNODE4 is unpinned.

C.Run olsnodes -t -n to list all cluster nodes that are pinned.

D.Run crsctl unpin css – RACNODE4 as the Grid Infrastructure owner if RACNODE4 is pinned.

E.Run crsctl unpin css – RACNODE4 as root if RACNODE 4 is pinned.

F.Run crsctl nodelist -t -n to list all cluster nodes that are pinned.

Answer: C,E

Explanation:

Deleting a Cluster Node on Linux and UNIX Systems

1. Ensure that Grid_home correctly specifies the full directory path for the Oracle Clusterware

home on each node, where Grid_home is the location of the installed Oracle Clusterware

software.

2. Run the following command as either root or the user that installed Oracle Clusterware to

determine whether the node you want to delete is active and whether it is pinned:

$ olsnodes -s -t

If the node is pinned, then run the crsctl unpin css command. Otherwise, proceed to the next step.

Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide

11g Release 2 (11.2)

[grid@rac1 bin]$ crsctl unpin css -n rac3

CRS-4563: Insufficient user privileges.

CRS-4000: Command Unpin failed, or completed with errors.

QUESTION NO: 105

You have defined two server pools.

One is called OLTP with MIN_SIZE=3, MAX_SIZE =5 and IMPORTANCE=3.

The other is called DSS with MIN_SIZE =2, MAX_SIZE =4 and IMPORTANCE =5.

Your cluster currently has four nodes with two nodes in each of the pools. A fifth node is added to

the cluster. What is true about the server pool to which the node will be assigned?

A.The node will have the server assigned to the DSS pool because the current size is less than

MAX_SIZE and the DSS pool has a greater importance than the OLTP pool.

B.The node will have the server assigned to the OLTP pool because the OLTP pool’s MAX_SIZE

is greater than MAX_SIZE of the DSS pool.

C.The node will have the server assigned to the OLTP pool because the OLTP pool’s current size

is less than its MIN_SIZE and the DSS pool has enough servers to equal its own MIN_SIZE.

D.The node will have the server assigned to the DSS pool on the basis of having a greater

IMPORTANCE.

Answer: C

Explanation:

Oracle Clusterware continues to assign servers to server pools until the following conditions are

met:

Until all server pools are filled in order of importance to their minimum (MIN_SIZE).

Until all server pools are filled in order of importance to their maximum (MAX_SIZE).

By default, any servers not placed in a server pool go into the Free server pool.

Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide

11g Release 2 (11.2)

QUESTION NO: 106

An ASM diskgroup that contains database tablespaces with six disks and normal redundancy is nearing 90% capacity. You want to add additional capacity to the diskgroup. A set of six additional disks has been made available, and appears as CANDIDATE disks in the V$ASM_DISK view.

What steps are required to increase the diskgroup capacity?

A.Export the database objects.

Drop the diskgroup.

Create a new diskgroup.

Import the database objects.

B.Shut down the database instances using the diskgroup.

Add the disks to the diskgroup.

Start the database instances using the diskgroup.

C.Set the rebalance power limit (or allow it to default).

Add the disks to the diskgroup.

D.Shut down all database instances and ASM instances.

Back up the ASM diskgroup.

Start the ASM instances.

Add the disks to the diskgroup.

Issue a rebalance command.

Start the database instances.

Answer: C

Explanation:

You can use the ADD clause of the ALTER DISKGROUP statement to add a disk or a failure group to a disk group. The same syntax that you use to add a disk or failure group with the CREATE DISKGROUP statement can be used with the ALTER DISKGROUP statement. ASM automatically rebalances the disk group when disks are added. By default, the ALTER DISKGROUP statement returns immediately after the disks have been added while the rebalance operation continues to run asynchronously. You can query the V$ASM_OPERATION view to monitor the status of the rebalance operation.

D60488GC11

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 8 – 21

QUESTION NO: 107

As part of your data center’s high availability strategy, you are creating resource definitions to control the management of a web-based application by the Oracle Grid Infrastructure clusterware stack.

The application and its VIP are normally online on one node of a four-node cluster due to the CARDINALITY of the resource type being set to 1.

You have chosen a policy-managed resource type for the application by using a server pool that uses only RACNODE3 and RACNODE4. The START ATTEMPTS attribute for the resource is set to 2 and FAILURE INTERVAL is set to 60.

What is true about the attributes that may be set to control the application?

A. The clusterware will attempt to start the application on the same node twice within the server pool as long as that node is up. If the node fails, then the VIP and the application will be failed over to the other node in the server pool immediately.

B.The clusterware will attempt to start the application on the same node twice within the server pool as long as that node is up. If the node fails, then the VIP and the application will be failed over to the other node in the server pool only after two 60-second intervals have elapsed.

C.The clusterware will attempt to start the application on the same node twice within the server pool as long as that node is up. If the application fails to start after 60 seconds, but the node is still up, then the VIP and the application will NOT be failed over to the other node in the server pool.

D.The clusterware will attempt to start the application on the same node twice within the server pool as long as that node is up. If the application fails to start immediately but the node is still up, then the VIP and the application will NOT be failed over to the other node in the server pool.

Answer: A

explanation:

A. FALSE

Explanation:

CARDINALITY

The number of servers on which a resource can run, simultaneously. This is the upper limit for

resource cardinality.

RESTART_ATTEMPTS

The number of times that Oracle Clusterware attempts to restart a resource on the resource’s

current server before attempting to relocate it. A value of 1 indicates that Oracle Clusterware only

attempts to restart the resource once on a server. A second failure causes Oracle Clusterware to

attempt to relocate the resource. A value of 0 indicates that there is no attempt to restart but

Oracle Clusterware always tries to fail the resource over to another server.

FAILURE_INTERVAL

The interval, in seconds, before which Oracle Clusterware stops a resource if the resource has

exceeded the number of failures specified by the FAILURE_THRESHOLD attribute. If the value is

zero (0), then tracking of failures is disabled.

FAILURE_THRESHOLD

The number of failures of a resource detected within a specified FAILURE_INTERVAL for the

resource before Oracle Clusterware marks the resource as unavailable and no longer monitors it.

If a resource fails the specified number of times, then Oracle Clusterware stops the resource. If the

value is zero (0), then tracking of failures is disabled. The maximum value is 20.

Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide

11g Release 2 (11.2)

QUESTION NO: 108

Choose four tools that can be used to create ASM disk groups.

A.Enterprise Manager

B.SRVCTL

C.ASMCMD

D.CRSCTL

E.ASMCA

F.SQL*Plus

Answer: A,C,E,F

QUESTION NO: 109

Which three statements are true about ASM dynamic volume manager (ADVM)?

A. ADVM provides volume management services and a standard disk device driver interface to file system drivers.

B.The administrator can use ADVM to create volumes that contain bootable vendor operating systems.

C.File systems and other disk-based applications issue I/O requests to ADVM volume devices as they would to other storage devices on a vendor operating system.

D.ADVM extends ASM by providing a disk driver interface to storage backed by an ASM volume.

E.To use the ADVM driver, the oraclesacfs, oradeoks, and oracleadvm drivers must be loaded, but an ASM instance is not required.

Answers: A,C,D

A.TRUE

B.FALSE

C.TRUE

D.TRUE

E.FALSE

Explanation:

At the operating system (OS) level, the ASM instance provides the disk group, which is a logical container for physical disk space. The disk group can hold ASM database files and ASM dynamic volume files. The ASM Dynamic Volume Manager (ADVM) presents the volume device file to the operating system as a block device.

The mkfs utility can be used to create an ASM file system in the volume device file.

Four OS kernel modules loaded in the OS provide the data service.

On Linux, they are:

  1. oracleasm, the ASM module;
  2. oracleadvm, the ASM dynamic volume manager module;
  3. oracleoks, the kernel services module;
  4. and oracleacfs, the ASM file system module.

These modules provide the ASM Cluster File System, ACFS snapshots, the ADVM, and clusterservices.

The ASM volumes are presented to the OS as a device file at /dev/asm/<volume name>-<number>.

ADVM provides volume management services and a standard disk device driver interface to clients. Clients, such as file systems and other disk-based applications, issue I/O requests to ADVM volume devices as they would to other storage devices on a vendor operating system.

ADVM extends ASM by providing a disk driver interface to storage backed by an ASM file. The administrator can use the ADVM to create volumes that contain file systems. These file systems can be used to support files beyond Oracle database files such as executables, report files, trace files, alert logs, and other application data files. With the addition of ADVM and ACFS, ASM becomes a complete storage solution of user data for both database and non-database file needs.

ACFS is intended as a general file system accessible by the standard OS utilities. ACFS can be used in either a single server or a cluster environment.

Note: Oracle ACFS file systems cannot be used for an Oracle base directory or an Oracle grid infrastructure home that contains the software for Oracle Clusterware, ASM, Oracle ACFS, and Oracle ADVM components.

Oracle ACFS file systems cannot be used for an OS root directory or boot directory.

ASM volumes serve as containers for storage presented as a block device accessed through ADVM. File systems or user processes can do I/O on this ASM volume device just as they would on any other device. To accomplish this, ADVM is configured into the operating system. A volume device is constructed from an ASM file.

D60488GC11

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 10 – 3,4,5

QUESTION NO: 110

For which two purposes would you recommend an ASM clustered file system (ACFS)?

A.a shared home directory for Oracle database executables in a single-instance cluster for cold failover

B.a shared home directory for Oracle Grid Infrastructure executables

C.a root file system for the operating system

D.a shared file system for RAC data files

E.a general purpose shared file system for OS files

F.a clustered file system for OCR and voting disk files

Answer:A,E

Explanation:

http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E11882_01/server.112/e18951/asmfilesystem.htm

Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS) is a multi-platform, scalable file system, and storage management technology that extends Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) functionality to support customer files maintained outside of Oracle Database. Oracle ACFS supports many database and application files, including executables, database trace files, database alert logs, application reports, BFILEs, and configuration files. Other supported files are video, audio, text, images, engineering drawings, and other general-purpose application file data.

Notes:

  • Oracle ASM is the preferred storage manager for all database files. It has been specifically designed and optimized to provide the best performance for database file types. For a list of file types supported by Oracle ASM, see Table 7-1, "File types supported by Oracle ASM".
  • Oracle ACFS is the preferred file manager for non-database files. It is optimized for general purpose files.
  • Oracle ACFS does not support any file type that can be directly stored in Oracle ASM, except where explicitly noted in the documentation.
  • Not supported means Oracle Support Services does not take calls and development does not fix bugs associated with storing unsupported file types in Oracle ACFS.
  • Starting with Oracle Automatic Storage Management 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.3), Oracle ACFS supports RMAN backups (BACKUPSET file type), archive logs (ARCHIVELOG file type), and Data Pump dumpsets (DUMPSET file type). Note that Oracle ACFS snapshots are not supported with these files.
  • Oracle ACFS does not support files for the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home.
  • Oracle ACFS does not support Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) and voting files.
  • Oracle ACFS functionality requires that the disk group compatibility attributes for ASM and ADVM be set to 11.2 or greater. For information about disk group compatibility, refer to "Disk Group Compatibility".

QUESTION NO: 111

A Grid Plug and Play (GPnP) software image must contain at least three items. Which three items are required?

A.operating system software

B.Oracle Database software

C.GPnP software

D.security certificate of the provisioning authority

E.application software

Answer: A,C,D

explanation

GPnP Components

Software image

  • • A software image is a read-only collection of software to be run on nodes of the same type.
  • • At a minimum, the image must contain:
  • –An operating system
  • –The GPnP software
  • –A security certificate from the provisioning authority
  • –Other software required to configure the node when it starts up

D60488GC11

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration

QUESTION NO: 112

As part of the preinstatlation process for adding two new nodes to your four-node UNIX cluster, you are in discussions with the OS administrators about the operating system Installation and setup for the two new nodes called RACNODE5 and RACNODE6.

The nodes have already been connected to the network infrastructure and the administrators are ready for the OS installation. Which two methods fulfill the installation requirements?

A.Install a new image of the OS, then configure SSH for the root user.

B.Install a cloned image of the OS that at least matches the existing node images for drivers, patches, and updates.

C.Install a new image of the OS, that at least matches an existing node for drivers, patches, and updates, and create the necessary OS users and groups with user and group IDs matching those on the existing nodes.

D.Install a new image of the OS that at least matches the existing node Images for drivers.

E.Install a new image of the OS, and create the necessary OS users and groups with any user and group IDs.

Answer: B,C

Explanation:

all user group and user id must be the same across all nodes

Prerequisite Steps for Adding Cluster Nodes

1. Make physical connections.

Connect the nodes’ hardware to the network infrastructure of your cluster. This includes

establishing electrical connections, configuring network interconnects, configuring shared disk

subsystem connections, and so on. See your hardware vendor documentation for details about

this step.

2. Install the operating system.

Install a cloned image of the operating system that matches the operating system on the other

nodes in your cluster. This includes installing required service patches, updates, and drivers. See

your operating system vendor documentation for details about this process. Note: Oracle

recommends that you use a cloned image. However, if the installation fulfills the installation

requirements, then install the operating system according to the vendor documentation.

3. Create Oracle users.

You must create all Oracle users on the new node that exist on the existing nodes. For example, if

you are adding a node to a cluster that has two nodes, and those two nodes have different owners

for the Grid Infrastructure home and the Oracle home, then you must create those owners on the

new node, even if you do not plan to install an Oracle home on the new node.

Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide

11g Release 2 (11.2)

QUESTION NO: 113

The storage administrator is adding several disks to a pool of ASM disks. The current ASM_DISKSTRING parameter is “/dev/sda*”, /dev/sdb*, /dev/sd*6″. There are several hundred disk partitions currently.

The new disks are /dev/sdf1, /dev/sdg1, /dev/sdh1, and /dev/sdd6.

Which ASM_DISKSTRING parameter would perform the best by searching the fewest number of devices for ASM discovery?

A.ASM_DISKSTRING=”/dev/sda*”, “/dev/sdb*”, ”/dev/sd*6”,”/dev/sd*1”

B.ASM_DISKSTRING=”/dev/sda*”, ”/dev/sdb*”, ”/dev/sd*6”,”/dev/sd*”

C.ASM_DISRSTRING=”/dev/sd*”

D.ASM_DISKSTRING=”"

E.ASM_DISKSTRING=”/dev/sda*”, “/dev/sdb*”, “/dev/sd*6”, “/dev/sdf1″, “/dev/sdg1”, “/dev/sdh1”

Answer:E

explanation:

this mask will cover existing and new disk,without scanning hundreds of disk partition

QUESTION NO: 114

You want to check an ACFS for consistency on the Linux platform. Which command-line tool would you use to do this?

A.advmutil

B.asmcmd

C.fsck

D.acfsutil

E.fdisk

Answer: C

explanation

Windows has a separate set of commands mainly for use with ACFS file systems and ADVM

volumes. On Linux and UNIX, you use the OS commands such as mkfs and fsck, whereas

on Windows, you use acfsformat and acfschkdsk. See the Oracle Database Storage

Administrator’s Guide: Oracle ACFS Command-Line Tools for the syntax of the ACFS

command-line tools for both environments.

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 2 - 57

QUESTION NO: 115

The high availability services provided by Oracle Clusterware are used to protect Oracle resources, such as RAC database instances, RAC database services, and other components of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure, and non-Oracle resources as well.

Which two statements are true about the high availability capabilities of Oracle HA services?

A.RAC databases may have their instances failed over in some cases.

B.ASM instances may be failed over if fewer than three nodes remain in the cluster, so that there are always at least three ASM instances available.

C.If a node fails, then all resources that were active on that node will be failed over to a surviving node if any exists.

D.If a node fails, then cluster resources that were active on that node may be failed over to a surviving node if any exists, but local resources are not failed over.

E.HA services will only fail over a resource upon failure of the node where the resource was active.

Answer: D,E

explanation:

Resource Types

Local resource: These are server-centric resources; the type name is local_resource. These run locally on individual servers of the cluster and are not relevant outside of the scope of the server.

Cluster resource: Cluster-aware resource types (type name is cluster_resource) are aware of the cluster environment and are subject to cardinality and cross-server switchover and failover. The state of cluster resources is relevant in the context of the cluster.

D60488GC11

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration

QUESTION NO: 116

Which three fragments will complete this statement correctly? In a cluster environment, an ACFS volume _____________.

A.will be automatically mounted by a node on reboot by default

B.must be manually mounted after a node reboot

C.will be automatically mounted by a node on cluster stack startup if it is included in the ACFS mount registry

D.will be automatically mounted by a node if it is defined as a cluster resource when a dependent cluster resource requires access

E.will be automatically mounted to all nodes in the cluster when the file system is registered

F.must be mounted before it can be registered

Answer:C,D,E

explanation:

A.FALSE by default volumes not mount

B.FALSE because volume can be mount automatic

C.TRUE

D.TRUE

E.TRUE

F.FALSE it can be registered before mount

Registering an ACFS Volume

You may register an ACFS volume. Registering the volume enables the cluster-ready services daemon to mount the volume automatically at startup. The –a option says add this volume to the registry. The –f option is used with the add option to allow replacement of an existing registry entry.

You may register the volume before or after you mount the volume.

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 10 - 20

Explanation:

About the Oracle ACFS Mount Registry

The Oracle ACFS mount registry supports both Oracle Restart and Oracle Grid Infrastructure cluster configurations. File systems that are to be mounted persistently (across reboots) can be registered with the Oracle ACFS mount registry. In cluster configurations, registered Oracle ACFS file systems are automatically mounted by the mount registry, similar to a clusterwide mount table.

However, in Oracle Restart configurations the automatic mounting of registered Oracle ACFS file systems is not supported. For more information, see “Oracle ACFS and Oracle Restart”.

By default, an Oracle ACFS file system that is inserted into the cluster mount registry is automatically mounted on all cluster members, including cluster members that are added after the registry addition. However, the cluster mount registry also accommodates single-node and multi-node (subset of cluster nodes) file system registrations. The mount registry actions for each cluster member mount only registered file systems that have been designated for mounting on that member.

The Oracle ACFS registry resource actions are designed to automatically mount a file system only one time for each Oracle Grid Infrastructure initialization to avoid potential conflicts with administrative actions to dismount a given file system.

Oracle ACFS Individual File System Resource Management

The Oracle ACFS individual file system resource is supported only for Oracle Grid Infrastructure cluster configurations; it is not supported for Oracle Restart configurations. See “Oracle ACFS and Oracle Restart”.

Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant (ASMCA) facilitates the creation of Oracle ACFS individual file system resources (ora.diskgroup.volume.acfs). During database creation with Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA), the individual file system resource is included in the dependency list of its associated disk group so that stopping the disk group also attempts to stop any dependent Oracle ACFS file systems.

An Oracle ACFS individual file system resource is typically created for use with application resource dependency lists. For example, if an Oracle ACFS file system is configured for use as an Oracle Database home, then a resource created for the file system can be included in the resource dependency list of the Oracle Database application. This dependency causes the file system and stack to be automatically mounted due to the start action of the database application.

An Oracle ACFS file system that is to be mounted from a dependency action should not be included in the Oracle ACFS mount registry.

Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator’s Guide

11g Release 2 (11.2)

QUESTION NO: 117

Which command will set full debugging for the communications and resource management components of the CRS module on nodes host01 and host03?

A.srvctl set log -m CRS -c CRSCTI 5, CRSCOMM 5 -m host01,host03

B.ocrconfig set log CRS “CRSRTI, CRSCOMM” -nodelist host01,host03

C.crsctl set log CRS “CRSRTI, CRSCOMM” -nodelist host01,host03

D.crsctl lsmodules crs set log CRSRTX , CRSCOMM -nodelist host01, host03

Answer: C

Explanation

for debug use crsctl

A.FALSE wrong syntax

B.FALSE wrong syntax

C.TRUE

D.FALSE wrong syntax

Explanation:

Dynamic Debugging

This section includes the following CRSCTL commands that aid in debugging:

crsctl set log

Use the crsctl set log command to set log levels for Oracle Clusterware.

Syntax

crsctl set log {[crs | css | evm "component_name=log_level, [...]“] |

[all=log_level]}

You can also set log levels for the agents of specific resources, as follows:

crsctl set log res “resource_name=log_level, [...]“

Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide

11g Release 2 (11.2)

QUESTION NO: 118

Which statement describes the requirements for the network interface names, such as eth0, in Oracle Clusterware?

A.Only the public interface names must be the same for all nodes.

B.Only the private interface names must be the same for all nodes.

C.Both the public interface name and the private interface name must be the same for all nodes.

D.Both the public interface name and the private interface name can vary on different nodes.

E.Only the private interface names can be different on different nodes.

F.Only the public interface names can be different on different nodes.

Answer: C

Explanation:

Checking Network Requirements

Each node must have at least two network interface cards (NICs).

Interface names must be the same on all nodes.

Public NIC must support TCP/IP and Private NIC UDP.

Public IP must be registered in the domain name server (DNS) or the /etc/hosts file.

# cat /etc/hosts

##### Public Interfaces eth0 (odd numbers)####

xxx.xxx.100.11

host01.example.com host01

xxx.xxx.100.13

host02.example.com host02

IF GNS is used, the Cluster GNS address must be registered in the DNS.

Prevent public network failures when using NAS devices or NFS mounts by starting the Name

Service Cache Daemon.

# /sbin/service nscd start

D60488GC11

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 2 18

QUESTION NO: 19

A policy-managed RAC database that hosts the ACCOUNTS service has only three instances running rather than the usual four on a six-node cluster.

Five of the six cluster nodes are active and the sixth (RACNODE6) is down for maintenance.

You decide to check the state of the servers in the server pools to see if there are problems with the OLTP pool to which the ACCOUNTS service has been assigned.

You used the ctsctl status server -f command and see that the RACNODE3 node has STATE=VISIBLE.

What is true about this situation?

A.The Cluster Synchronization Services Daemon (CSSD) is running RACNODE3 is considered to be part of the cluster, but the Cluster Ready Services Daemon (CRSD) is currently not running.

B.Both the Cluster Ready Services Daemon (CRSD) and the Cluster Synchronization Services Daemon (CSSD) are running on RACNODE3, but RACNODE3 is currently being moved to another server pool.

C.The Cluster Ready Services Daemon (CRSD) is running and RACNODE3 is considered to be part of the cluster, but the Cluster Synchronization Services Daemon (CSSD) is currently not running.

D.Neither the Cluster Ready Services Daemon (CRSD) nor the Cluster Synchronization Services Daemon (CSSD) is running on RACNODE3.

Answer: A

explanation:

Servers that have Oracle Clusterware running, but not the Cluster Ready Services daemon (crsd), are put into the VISIBLE state. This usually indicates an intermittent issue or failure and Oracle Clusterware trying to recover (restart) the daemon. Oracle Clusterware cannot manage resources on servers while the servers are in this state.

http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E11882_01/rac.112/e16794/admin.htm#CHDBIACG

Table 2-1 Server Attributes

Attribute

Description

NAME

The node name of the server. A server name can contain any platform-supported characters except the exclamation point (!) and the tilde (~). A server name cannot begin with a period, or with ora. This attribute is required.

ACTIVE_POOLS

A space-delimited list of the names of the server pools to which a server belongs. Oracle Clusterware manages this list, automatically.

STATE

A server can be in one of the following states:

ONLINE

The server is a member of the cluster and is available for resource placement.

OFFLINE

The server is not currently a member of the cluster. Subsequently, it is not available for resource placement.

JOINING

When a server joins a cluster, Oracle Clusterware processes the server to ensure that it is valid for resource placement. Oracle Clusterware also checks the state of resources configured to run on the server. Once the validity of the server and the state of the resources are determined, the server transitions out of this state.

LEAVING

When a planned shutdown for a server begins, the state of the server transitions to LEAVING, making it unavailable for resource placement.

VISIBLE

Servers that have Oracle Clusterware running, but not the Cluster Ready Services daemon (crsd), are put into the VISIBLE state. This usually indicates an intermittent issue or failure and Oracle Clusterware trying to recover (restart) the daemon. Oracle Clusterware cannot manage resources on servers while the servers are in this state.

RECONFIGURING

When servers move between server pools due to server pool reconfiguration, a server is placed into this state if resources that ran on it in the current server pool must be stopped and relocated. This happens because resources running on the server may not be configured to run in the server pool to which the server is moving. As soon as the resources are successfully relocated, the server is put back into the ONLINEstate.

Use the crsctl status server command to obtain server information.

STATE_DETAILS

This is a read-only attribute that Oracle Clusterware manages. The attribute provides additional details about the state of a server. Possible additional details about a server state are:

Server state: ONLINE:

  • AUTOSTARTING RESOURCES
  • Indicates that the resource autostart procedure (performed when a server reboots or the Oracle Clusterware stack is restarted) is in progress for the server.
  • AUTOSTART QUEUED
  • The server is waiting for the resource autostart to commence. Once that happens, the attribute value changes to AUTOSTARTING RESOURCES.

Server state: RECONFIGURING:

  • STOPPING RESOURCES
  • Resources that are restricted from running in a new server pool are stopping.
  • STARTING RESOURCES
  • Resources that can run in a new server pool are starting.
  • RECONFIG FAILED
  • One or more resources did not stop and thus the server cannot transition into the ONLINE state. At this point, manual intervention is required. You must stop or unregister resources that did not stop. After that, the server automatically transitions into the ONLINE state.

Server state: JOINING:

  • CHECKING RESOURCES
  • Whenever a server reboots, the Oracle Clusterware stack restarts, or crsd on a server restarts, the policy engine must determine the current state of the resources on the server. While that procedure is in progress, this value is returned.

Use the crsctl status server command to obtain server information.

QUESTION NO: 120

Which command will resize an ACFS file system on the DATA diskgroup?

-The ADVM volume is named VOL1.

-The mount point is >/u01/app/oracle/afsmounts/vol1.

-The new, larger size is 20G.

A.ASMCMD [+] > volsize -G data -s 20G VOL1

B./sbin/acfsutil size 20G /u01/app/oracle/afsmounts/vol1

C.SQL> ALTER DISKGROUP data RESIZE VOLUME vol1 SIZE 20G;

D.None, an ACFS file system cannot be resized.

E.fsadm /u0l/app/orlacle/afsmounts/vol1 20G

Answer: B

explanation:

A.FALSE

ASMCMD> help volresize

Resizes an Oracle ADVM volume.

B. TRUE

[grid@oel6-1 ~]$ acfsutil size +2G /u01/dumps/

acfsutil size: new file system size: 7516192768 (7168MB)

but if we try to use device to resize we got an error

[grid@oel6-1 ~]$ acfsutil size +2G /dev/asm/rac_dump-110

acfsutil size: ACFS-03158: unsupported file type for /dev/asm/rac_dump-110, not a mount point or a file

Usage: acfsutil [-h] size [-|+]nnn[K|M|G|T|P] <path> - Resize file system

C.FALSE

SQL> alter diskgroup RAC_DATA resize volume rac_dump size 5G;

alter diskgroup RAC_DATA resize volume rac_dump size 5G

*

ERROR at line 1:

ORA-15032: not all alterations performed

ORA-15476: ACFS volumes must be resized with the 'acfsutil size' operating

system command.

D. FALSE it can be resized

E. FALSE

[root@oel6-1 votedisk]# fsadm /u01/dumps/ 10G

fsadm: Wrong argument "/u01/dumps/". (see: fsadm --help)

and correct syntax gives no result

[root@oel6-1 votedisk]# fsadm -e -y resize /u01/dumps/ 10G

fsadm: Cannot get readlink "/u01/dumps/"

QUESTION NO: 121

You use the following command to create a disk group:

CREATE DISRGROUP DATA NORMAL REDUNDANCY

FAILGROUP fg_f ra_l DISK

‘/dev/sda6’ NAME FRA_DISKl,

‘/dev/sda7’ NAME FRA_DISK2

FAILGROUP fg_fra_2 DISK

‘/dev/sdb1’ NAME FRA_DISK3,

‘/dev/sdb2’ NAME FRA_DISK4

FAILGROUP fg_fra_3 DISK

‘/dev/sdc1’ NAME FRA_DISK5,

‘/dev/sdc2’ NAME FRA_DISK6

ATTRIBUTES

‘AU_SIZE’ = ’4M’

‘compatible.rdbms’ = ’11.1.0’;

Which two statements are true about the data disk group?

A. Each disk in a failure group is a mirror of the corresponding disk in the other failure groups. For example, FRA_DISK2 is a mirror of FRA_DISK4 and FRA_DISK6.

B.By default, the files created in this disk group must have, for each extent, one primary copy and two mirror copies; one on each of the failure groups.

C. Because the size clause is not used, the disk group uses the same amount of space on each disk.

D. The ‘compatible. rdbms’ attribute specifies the minimum COMPATIBLE setting for any database using this disk group.

E. If the FRA_DISK2 disk fails, there are mirrored copies in one of the other failure groups for any primary extents that are on FRA_DISK2.

F. The allocation unit, AU_SIZE, sets the size of the disk read and write to ASM diskgroups.

Answer: D,E

explanation

A.FALSE as disk group is normal redundancy so it has one mirror extent in other failure group, not two, just one

B.FALSE as disk group is normal redundancy so it has one mirror extent in other failure group, not two, just one

C.FALSE it use all space

D.TRUE

E.TRUE

F.FALSE AU_SIZE set allocation units, disk read are determined by other parameters

Explanation:

About Mirroring and Failure Groups

Mirroring protects data integrity by storing copies of data on multiple disks. When you create a disk

group, you specify an Oracle ASM disk group type based on one of the following three redundancy

levels:

Normal for 2-way mirroring

High for 3-way mirroring

External to not use Oracle ASM mirroring, such as when you configure hardware RAID for

redundancy

The redundancy level controls how many disk failures are tolerated without dismounting the disk

group or losing data. The disk group type determines the mirroring levels with which Oracle

creates files in a disk group.

For information about disk group types and templates, see “Managing Disk Group Templates”.

Oracle ASM mirroring is more flexible than traditional RAID mirroring. For a disk group specified

as NORMAL redundancy, you can specify the redundancy level for each file. For example, two

files can share the same disk group with one file being mirrored while the other is not.

When Oracle ASM allocates an extent for a mirrored file, Oracle ASM allocates a primary copy

and a mirror copy. Oracle ASM chooses the disk on which to store the mirror copy in a different

failure group than the primary copy. Failure groups are used to place mirrored copies of data so

that each copy is on a disk in a different failure group. The simultaneous failure of all disks in a

failure group does not result in data loss.

You define the failure groups for a disk group when you create an Oracle ASM disk group. After a

disk group is created, you cannot alter the redundancy level of the disk group. If you omit the

failure group specification, then Oracle ASM automatically places each disk into its own failure

group, except for disk groups containing disks on Oracle Exadata cells. Normal redundancy disk

groups require at least two failure groups. High redundancy disk groups require at least three

failure groups. Disk groups with external redundancy do not use failure groups.

Allocation Units

Every Oracle ASM disk is divided into allocation units (AU). An allocation unit is the fundamental

unit of allocation within a disk group. A file extent consists of one or more allocation units. An

Oracle ASM file consists of one or more file extents.

When you create a disk group, you can set the Oracle ASM allocation unit size with the AU_SIZE

disk group attribute. The values can be 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, or 64 MB, depending on the specific disk

group compatibility level. Larger AU sizes typically provide performance advantages for data

warehouse applications that use large sequential reads.

Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator’s Guide

11g Release 2 (11.2)

QUESTION NO: 122

Your cluster was originally created with nodes RACNODE1 and RACNODE2 three years ago. Last year, nodes RACNODE3 and RACNODE4 were added. These nodes have faster processors and more local storage than the original nodes making performance management and tuning more difficult.

Two more nodes with the same processor speed have been added to the cluster last week as RACNODE5 and RACNODE6 and you must remove RACNODE1 and RACNODE2 for redeployment.

The Oracle Grid Infrastructure is using GNS and the databases are all 11g Release 2, all running from the same home. The Grid home is /fs01/home/grid.

Which three steps must be performed to remove the nodes from the cluster?

A. Run /fs01/home/grid/oui/bin/runInstaller -updateNodeList

ORACLE_HOME=/fs01/home/grid "CLUSTER_NODES= {RACNODE3 , RACNODE4 , RACNODE5 , RACNODE6}

as the grid software owner on any remaining node.

B. Run /fs01/home/grid/oui/bin/runInstaller -updateNodeList

ORACLE_HOME=/fs01/home/grid " CLUSTER_NODES={RACNODE1}

as the grid software owner on RACNODE1 and run /fs01/home/grid/oui/bin/runInstaller -updateNodeList ORACLE_HOME=/ fs01/home/grid " CLUSTER_NODES={RACNODE 2} as the grid software owner on RACNODE2.

C. Run /fs01/home/grid/oui/bin/runInstaller -detachHome ORACLE_HOME=/fs01/home/grid as the grid software owner on RACNODE1 and RACNODE2.

D. Run the /fs01/home/grid/crs/install/rootcrs.pl script as root on each node to be deleted.

E. Run crsctl delete node -n RACNODE1 and crsctl delete node -n RACNODE2 as root from any node remaining in the cluster.

Answer: A,D,E

Deleting a Cluster Node on Linux and UNIX Systems

1. Ensure that Grid_home correctly specifies the full directory path for the Oracle Clusterware home on each

node, where Grid_home is the location of the installed Oracle Clusterware software.

2. Run the following command as either root or the user that installed Oracle Clusterware to determine

whether the node you want to delete is active and whether it is pinned:

$ olsnodes -s -t

If the node is pinned, then run the crsctl unpin css command. Otherwise, proceed to the next step.

3. Disable the Oracle Clusterware applications and daemons running on the node. Run the rootcrs.pl script as

root from the Grid_home/crs/install directory on the node to be deleted, as follows:

# ./rootcrs.pl -deconfig -deinstall -force

If you are deleting multiple nodes, then run the rootcrs.pl script on each node that you are deleting.

If you are deleting all nodes from a cluster, then append the -lastnode option to the preceding command

to clear OCR and the voting disks, as follows:

# ./rootcrs.pl -deconfig -deinstall -force -lastnode

4. From any node that you are not deleting, run the following command from the Grid_home/bin directory as

root to delete the node from the cluster:

# crsctl delete node -n node_to_be_deleted

Then if you run a dynamic Grid Plug and Play cluster using DHCP and GNS, skip to step 7 .

5. On the node you want to delete, run the following command as the user that installed Oracle Clusterware

from the Grid_home/oui/bin directory where node_to_be_deleted is the name of the node that you are

deleting:$ ./runInstaller -updateNodeList ORACLE_HOME=Grid_home "CLUSTER_NODES=

{node_to_be_deleted}" CRS=TRUE -silent -local

6. On the node that you are deleting, depending on whether you have a shared or local Oracle home,

complete one of the following procedures as the user that installed Oracle Clusterware:

If you have a shared home, then run the following command from the Grid_home/oui/bin directory on

the node you want to delete:

$ ./runInstaller -detachHome ORACLE_HOME=Grid_home -silent -local

For a local home, deinstall the Oracle Clusterware home from the node that you want to delete, as

follows, by running the following command, where Grid_home is the path defined for the Oracle

Clusterware home:

$ Grid_home/deinstall/deinstall –local

7. On any node other than the node you are deleting, run the following command from the Grid_home/oui/bin

directory where remaining_nodes_list is a comma-delimited list of the nodes that are going to remain part of

your cluster:

$ ./runInstaller -updateNodeList ORACLE_HOME=Grid_home "CLUSTER_NODES=

{remaining_nodes_list}" CRS=TRUE -silent

8. Run the following CVU command to verify that the specified nodes have been successfully deleted from the

cluster:

$ cluvfy stage -post nodedel -n node_list [-verbose]

Oracle® Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide

11g Release 2 (11.2)

QUESTION NO: 123

Examine the set of commands given below:

Which statement is true in this scenario?

A. All the instances of the RACDB will have the TRACE_ENABLED parameter with the value

TRUE because this parameter must have the same value on all the instances.

B. All the instances of the RACDB will have the TRACE_ENABLED parameter with the value

TRUE except the RACDB_1 instance, which will have the value FALSE for this parameter.

C. All the instances of the RACDB will have the TRACE_ENABLED parameter with the value

TRUE because the first ALTER statement has higher precedence.

D. All the instances of the RACDB will nave the TRACE_ENABLED parameter with the value

FALSE because the second ALTER statement has higher precedence.

Answer: B

Explanation:

SPFILE Parameter Values and RAC

QUESTION NO: 124

Which three programs or utilities can be used to convert a single-instance database to a Real

Application Cluster database?

A.DBCA

B.the SRVCTL utility

C.Enterprise Manager

D.the RCONFIG utility

E.the CRSCTLl utility

Answer: A,C,D

Before you use the DBCA to convert a single-instance database to a RAC database, ensure that

your system meets the conditions:

• It is a supported hardware and operating system configuration.

• It has shared storage. A supported Cluster File System, NFS mount, or ASM is available

and accessible from all nodes.

• Your applications have no design characteristics that preclude their use with cluster

database processing.

You can also use Enterprise Manager and the rconfig utility to perform the single instance

to RAC conversion.

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 11 - 23

QUESTION NO: 125

Your RAC database has a high volume of inserts into the SALES table.

Sequence SALES_SEQ is used to generate primary key values.

Examine the following query output:

SQL> SELECT sequence_name, min_value, max_value, increment_by, cache_size FROM

dba_sequences ;

Output:

What would you recommend to improve the response times?

A.

Increasing size of undo tablespaces

B.

increasing sequence cache sizes

C.

???

D.

???

Answer: B

Explanation

Oracle Sequences and Index Contention

Indexes with key values generated by sequences tend to be subject to leaf block contention when the insert rate is high. That is because the index leaf block holding the highest key value is changed for every row inserted, as the values are monotonically ascending. In RAC, this may lead to a high rate of current and CR blocks transferred between nodes.

One of the simplest techniques that can be used to limit this overhead is to increase the sequence cache, if you are using Oracle sequences. Because the difference between sequence values generated by different instances increases, successive index block splits tend to create instance affinity to index leaf blocks. For example, suppose that an index key value is generated by a CACHE NOORDER sequence and each index leaf block can hold 500 rows. If the sequence cache is set to 50000, while instance 1 inserts values 1, 2, 3, and so on, instance 2 concurrently inserts 50001, 50002, and so on. After some block splits, each instance writes to a different part of the index tree.

So, what is the ideal value for a sequence cache to avoid inter-instance leaf index block contention, yet minimizing possible gaps? One of the main variables to consider is the insert rate: the higher it is, the higher must be the sequence cache. However, creating a simulation to evaluate the gains for a specific configuration is recommended.

Note: By default, the cache value is 20. Typically, 20 is too small for the preceding example.

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Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 14 - 24

QUESTION NO: 126

You are managing a three-instance Oracle RAC database which uses a Cluster File System for shared storage.

Which two options can you use to ensure that the redo logs from all the instances are available during RMAN recovery from any instance?

A. Set the LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_1 parameter to a single location on the Cluster File System for each of the three instances and leave the LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT parameter with the default value.

B. Set only the LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_1 parameter to a single location on the Cluster File System for any one of the three instances and leave the LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT parameter with the default value.

C. Set the LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_1 parameter to a single location on the Cluster File System for each of the three instances, and the LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT parameter for each instance, to the same format including the thread number.

D. Set the LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_1 parameter to a single location on the Cluster File System, and set LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT parameter on only one instance.

Answer: A,C

Explanation

Initialization Parameter Settings for the Cluster File System Archiving Scheme

In the cluster file system scheme, each node archives to a directory that is identified with the same name on all instances within the cluster database (/arc_dest, in the following example). To configure this directory, set values for the LOG_ARCH_DEST_1 parameter, as shown in the following example:

*.LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_1="LOCATION=/arc_dest"

Archived Redo Log File Conventions in Oracle RAC

For any archived redo log configuration, uniquely identify the archived redo logs with the LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT parameter. The format of this parameter is operating system-specific and it can include text strings, one or more variables, and a filename extension.

Use the %R or %r parameters to include the resetlogs identifier to avoid overwriting the logs from a previous incarnation. If you do not specify a log format, then the default is operating system-specific and includes %t, % s, and %r.

Oracle® Real Application Clusters Administration and deployment guide

QUESTION NO: 127

You are managing a three-Instance RAC database. In the AWR report, you notice a gc current block busy wait event on one of the database Instances, in the cluster top timed events section.

What are two possible reasons for this wait event?

A. Access to blocks was delayed as the blocks were pinned In exclusive mode for updates by some sessions.

B. Access to blocks was delayed by log writes on remote Instance.

C. Frequently used select statements are causing high disk Input/output contention.

D. CPU shortages.

Answer: A,B

explanation

gc cr block busy - When a request needs a block in CR mode , it sends a request to the master instance. The requestor eventually gets the block via cache fusion transfer. However sometimes the block transfer is delayed due to either the block was being used by a session on another instance or the block transfer was delayed because the holding instance could not write the corresponding redo records to the online logfile immediately

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 14 - 14

Explanation:

Analyzing Performance Using GCS and GES Statistics

The gc current block busy wait event indicates that the access to cached data blocks was delayed

because they were busy either in the remote or the local cache. This could be caused by any of

the following:

The blocks were pinned

The blocks were held up by sessions

The blocks were delayed by a log write on a remote instance

A session on the same instance was already accessing a block which was in transition between

instances and the current session needed to wait behind it (for example, gc current block busy)

Contention-Related Wait Events

The main wait events for contention-related waits are:

gc current block busy

gc cr block busy

gc buffer busy acquire/release

The contention-related wait event statistics indicate that a block was received which was pinned

by a session on another node, was deferred because a change had not yet been flushed to disk or

because of high concurrency, and therefore could not be shipped immediately. A buffer may also

be busy locally when a session has already initiated a cache fusion operation and is waiting for its

completion when another session on the same node is trying to read or modify the same data.

High service times for blocks exchanged in the global cache may exacerbate the contention, which

can be caused by frequent concurrent read and write accesses to the same data.

The gc current block busy and gc cr block busy wait events indicate that the local instance that is

making the request did not immediately receive a current or consistent read block. The term busy

in these events’ names indicates that the sending of the block was delayed on a remote instance.

For example, a block cannot be shipped immediately if Oracle Database has not yet written the

redo for the block’s changes to a log file.

Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide

11g Release 2 (11.2)

QUESTION NO: 128

Which three predefined database-type templates already include the data files when creating an Oracle Cluster database?

A.General Purpose

B.Transaction Processing

C.Custom Database

D.Data Warehouse

E.OLAP Database

Answer: A,B,D

C.FALSE as it has no datafiles in template

E.FALSE as it does not exists

QUESTION NO: 129

Examine the following output:

[oracIe@gr5153 ~]$ sudo crsctl config crs

CRS-4622: Oracle High Availability Services autostart is enabled.

[oracIe@gr5153 ~]$ srvctl config database -d RACDB -a

Database unique name: RACDB

Database name: RACDB

Oracle home : /u01/app/oracle/product/l11.2.0/dbhome_1

Oracle user: oracle

Spfile: +DATA/ RACDB /spfileRACDB.ora

Domain:

Start options: open

Stop options: immediate

Database role: PRIMARY

Management policy: AUTOMATIC

Server pools: POOL1

Database instances:

Disk Groups: DATA, FRA

Services:

Database is enabled

Database is policy managed

Oracle Clusterware is started automatically after the system boot.

Which two statements are true regarding the attributes of RACDB?

A.Oracle Clusterware automatically starts RACDB.

B.You must manually start RACDB.

C.Database resource is managed by crsd for high availability and may be automatically restarted in place if it fails.

D.Database resource Is not managed by crsd for high availability and needs to be restarted manually if it fails.

Answer: A,C

Explanation:

Switch Between the Automatic and Manual Policies

By default, Oracle Clusterware is configured to start the VIP, listener, instance, ASM, database

services, and other resources during system boot. It is possible to modify some resources to have

their profile parameter AUTO_START set to the value 2. This means that after node reboot, or

when Oracle Clusterware is started, resources with AUTO_START=2 need to be started manually

via srvctl. This is designed to assist in troubleshooting and system maintenance. When changing

resource profiles through srvctl, the command tool automatically modifies the profile attributes of

other dependent resources given the current prebuilt dependencies. The command to accomplish

this is:

srvctl modify database -d <dbname> -y AUTOMATIC|MANUAL

D60488GC11

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 15 3

3.4.1 Benefits of Using Oracle Clusterware

Oracle Clusterware provides the following benefits:

Tolerates and quickly recovers from computer and instance failures.

Simplifies management and support by means of using Oracle Clusterware together with Oracle

Database.

By using fewer vendors and an all Oracle stack you gain better integration compared to using

third-party clusterware.

Performs rolling upgrades for system and hardware changes. For example, you can apply Oracle

Clusterware upgrades, patch sets, and interim patches in a rolling fashion, as follows:

Upgrade Oracle Clusterware from Oracle Database 10g to Oracle Database 11g

Upgrade Oracle Clusterware from Oracle Database release 11.1 to release 11.2

Patch Oracle Clusterware from Oracle Database 11.1.0.6 to 11.1.0.7

Patch Oracle Clusterware from Oracle Database 10.2.0.2 Bundle 1 to Oracle Database 10.2.0.2

Bundle 2

Automatically restarts failed Oracle processes.

Automatically manages the virtual IP (VIP) address so when a node fails then the node’s VIP

address fails over to another node on which the VIP address can accept connections.

Automatically restarts resources from failed nodes on surviving nodes.

Controls Oracle processes as follows:

For Oracle RAC databases, Oracle Clusterware controls all Oracle processes by default.

For Oracle single-instance databases, Oracle Clusterware allows you to configure the Oracle

processes into a resource group that is under the control of Oracle Clusterware.

Provides an application programming interface (API) for Oracle and non-Oracle applications that

enables you to control other Oracle processes with Oracle Clusterware, such as restart or react to

failures and certain rules.

Manages node membership and prevents split-brain syndrome in which two or more instances

attempt to control the database.

Provides the ability to perform rolling release upgrades of Oracle Clusterware, with no downtime

for applications.

Oracle Database High Availability Overview

11g Release 2 (11.2)

QUESTION NO: 130

Which four statements are true about services and connection load balancing?

A. Services provide the ability to balance client connections across the instances in an Oracle RAC configuration.

B. There are two types of load balancing that you can implement; load balancing decisions can be made by the client and by the listener.

C. In a RAC database environment, you should select only one load balancing method.

D.With server-side load balancing, the listener directs a connection request to the best instance that is currently providing the service based on the load-balancing options selected by the DBA.

E. Client-side load balancing balances the connection requests across the listeners.

Answer: A,B,D,E

Explanation:

Services and Connection Load Balancing

The two load balancing methods that you can implement are:

Client-side load balancing: Balances the connection requests across the listeners

Server-side load balancing: The listener directs a connection request to the best instance

currently providing the service by using the load balancing advisory (LBA).

FAN, Fast Connection Failover, and LBA depend on a connection load balancing configuration

that includes setting the connection load balancing goal for the service.

The load balancing goal for the service can be either:

LONG: For applications having long-lived connections. This is typical for connection pools and

SQL*Forms sessions.

SHORT: For applications that have short-lived connection

Oracle Net Services provides the ability to balance client connections across the instances in an

Oracle RAC configuration. You can implement two types of load balancing: client-side and server-side.

Client-side load balancing balances the connection requests across the listeners.

With server-side load balancing, the listener directs a connection request to the best instance

currently providing the service by using the load balancing advisory.

In a RAC database, client connections should use both types of connection load balancing.

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Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 15 12

QUESTION NO: 131

You are managing a three-instance policy-managed RAC database PROD. You created a service

called GL for the PROD database by using the following command:

[oracIe@gr7597~]$ srvctl add service -d PROD -s GL -g SP1 -c singleton -y manual

Examine the following output:

[oracIe@gr7597~]$ srvctl config database -d PROD -a

Database unique name: PROD

Database name: PROD

Oracle home: /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1

Oracle user: oracle

Spfile: +DATA/PROD/spfileRACDB.ora

Domain:

Start options: open

Stop options: immediate

Database role: PRIMARY

Management policy: AUTOMATIC

Server pools: SP1

Database instances:

Disk Groups: DATA, FRA

Services:

Database is enabled

Database is policy managed

[oracIe@gr7597~]$ crsctl stat res ora.PROD.db

NAME=ora.PROD.db

TYPE=cluster_resource

TARGET=ONLINE

STATE=ONLINE on gr7597 ONLINE on gr7602 ONLINE on gr7633

[oracIe@gr7597~]$ crsctl stat serverpool ora.SP1

NAME=ora.SP1

ACTIVE_SERVERS=gr7597 gr7602 gr7633

[oraclegr7597-]$ crsctl stat res ora.prod.gl.svc

NAME=ora.prod.gl.svc

TYFE=ora.service.type

TARGET=ONLINE

STATE=ONLINE on gr7597

Which three steps are required to enable ODP.NET clients that connect to the GL service to receive FAN High Availability Events?

A. Enable Advanced Queuing notifications by using SRVCTL as shown in the following command:

$ srvctl modify service -d prod -s gl -q TRUE -j LONG

B. Execute the following statement for the users that will be connecting by way of the .Net Application, where user_name is the user name:

EXECUTE DBMS_AQADM.GRANT_QUEUE_PRIVILEGE( ‘DEQUEUE’, ‘ SYS.SYS$SERVICE_METRICS’, user_name ) ;

C.Enable Transparent Application Failover (TAF), either on the client or for the service.

D.Enable Fast Connection Failover for ODP.NET connection pools by subscribing to FAN High Availability events. Do this by setting the HA events connection string attribute to true at connection time.

E.Link client applications with the client thread or operating system library.

Answer: A,B,D

Explanation:

Enabling ODP.NET Clients to Receive FAN High Availability Events Perform the following steps to enable FAN for ODP.NET clients:

Enable Advanced Queuing notifications for a service by using SRVCTL as shown in the following example:

srvctl modify service -d crm -s odpnet.example.com -q TRUE

Grant permissions on the internal event queue table by executing the following command for the users that will be connecting by way of the ODP.NET application, where user_name is the database user name:

EXECUTE DBMS_AQADM.GRANT_QUEUE_PRIVILEGE(‘DEQUEUE’,'SYS.SYS$SERVICE_METRICS’,user_name);

Enable Fast Connection Failover for ODP.NET connection pools by subscribing to FAN high availability events. To enable FCF, include “HA Events=true” and “pooling=true” (the default value) in the connection string, as shown in the following example where user_name is the name of the database user and password is the password for that user:

con.ConnectionString =“User Id=user_name;Password=password;Data Source=odpnet;” +“Min Pool Size=10;Connection Lifetime=120;Connection Timeout=60;” + “HA Events=true;Incr Pool Size=5;Decr Pool Size=2″;

Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide

11g Release 2 (11.2)

QUESTION NO: 132

Examine the Exhibit.

Which three statements are correct?

A.Global Cache Block Access Latency indicates how many block transfers incurred a delay (busy) or an unexpected longer delay (congested).

B.Global Cache Block Access Latency indicates how many block transfers received blocks cached by other instances as well as blocks read from disk.

C.Global Cache Block Transfer Rate shows the total aggregated number of blocks received by all instances in the cluster over the interconnect.

D.Global Cache Block Transfer Rate is essentially a profile of how much work is performed in the local buffer cache, rather than the portion of remote references and physical reads, which both have higher latencies.

E.Global Cache Block Transfers and Physical Reads shows the percentage of read operations that retrieved blocks from disk, and the buffer cache of other instances using Cache Fusion.

F.Global Cache Block Transfers and Physical Reads shows the aggregated number of data blocks received by all instances in the cluster over the interconnect.

Answer: A,C,E

Explanation:

B. FALSE global cache has no disk reads

D.FALSE i have no idea how to correlate data of GC bloc transfers and work in LOCAL buffer cache. GC block transfer rate it is aggregated data of transfers block

F.Global Cache Block Transfers and Physical Reads shows result in %

Global Cache Block Access Latency

The global cache access latency represents the end-to-end elapsed time for a block request. The request is

timed from when the request is initiated until it completes. Cache transfer indicates how many current and CR

blocks per block class were received from remote instances, including how many transfers incurred a delay

(busy) or an unexpected longer delay (congested).

If accessing a database block of any class does not locate a buffered copy in the local cache, a global cache

operation is initiated. Before reading a block from disk, an attempt is made to find the block in the buffer cache

of another instance. If the block is present in another instance, a version of the block may be shipped. Two

different kinds of blocks are distinguished: current and consistent read blocks. The average block receive time

represents the end-to-end elapsed time or latency for a block request.

Global Cache Block Transfer Rate

The global cache block transfer rate shows the total aggregated number of data blocks received by all

instances in the cluster by way of an interconnect. If a logical read fails to find a copy of the buffer in the local

cache, it attempts to find the buffer in the database cache of a remote instance. If the block is present in

another database, it is sent to the current instance.Global Cache Block Transfers and Physical Reads

The chart represents the percentage of logical reads that read data from the buffer cache of other instances via

Direct Memory Access and from disk. It is essentially a profile of how much work is performed in the local

buffer cache, rather than the portion of non-local references that incur some latency overhead.

Global Cache Block Transfers and Physical Reads

The chart represents the percentage of logical reads that read data from the buffer cache of other instances via Direct Memory Access and from disk. It is essentially a profile of how much work is performed in the local buffer cache, rather than the portion of non-local references that incur some latency overhead.

Click on the legends to the right of the chart to go to the Global Cache Block Transfers vs. Logical Reads by Instance and Physical Reads vs. Logical Reads by Instance pages. From there, you can click an instance legend below the chart to go to the Segment Statistics by Instance page, where you can see segments causing cache contention.

Oracle Enterprise Manager Online Help

QUESTION NO: 133

orcl1, orcl2, and orcl3 are tnsnames that connect to predefined instances of a three-instance RAC database which uses ASM for shared storage.

The database is in archivelog mode.

Examine the Exhibit for the tnsnames.ora entries for orcl1, orcl2, and orcl3.

You plan to execute the following RMAN commands to back up the database:

RUN{

ALLOCATE CHANNEL CH1 DEVICE TYPE DISK CONNECT ‘user1/pwd1@orcl1′;

ALLOCATE CHANNEL CH2 DEVICE TYPE DISK CONNECT ‘user2/pwd2@orcl2′;

ALLOCATE CHANNEL CH3 DEVICE TYPE DISK CONNECT ‘user3/pwd3@orcl3′;

BACKUP DATABASE PLUS ARCHIVELOG; }

What should be the database mode on each of the three instances for this backup to succeed?

A.The database can be either mounted or open on all three instances.

B.The database must be open on all three instances.

C.The database must be open on any one instance and mounted on the other two instances.

D.The database must be mounted on any one of the instances and the other instances will be mounted automatically.

Answer: A

explanation:

During a backup, the instances to which the channels connect must be either all mounted or all open. For example, if the orcl1 instance has the database mounted whereas the orcl2 and orcl3 instances have the database open, then the backup fails.

In some cluster database configurations, some nodes of the cluster have faster access to certain data files than to other data files. RMAN automatically detects this, which is known as node affinity awareness. When deciding which channel to use to back up a particular data file, RMAN gives preference to the nodes with faster access to the data files that you want to back up.

Note: You can protect the username and password in an Oracle wallet by using the mkstoreutility as outlined in MetaLink note 340559.1.

Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 13 - 16

QUESTION NO: 134

The Global Cache Block Access Latency chart shows high elapsed times. What are two possible causes for this?

A. badly written SQL statements

B. storage network bottlenecks

C. a large number of requested blocks not cached in any instance

D. slow or faulty interconnect

Answer: A,D

Determining

Global Cache Block Access Latency

The Global Cache Block Access Latency chart shows the latency for each type of data block requests: current and consistent-read (CR) blocks. That is the elapsed time it takes to locate and transfer consistent-read and current blocks between the buffer caches.

You can click either metric for the Global Cache Block Access Latency chart to view more detailed information about that type of cached block.

If the Global Cache Block Access Latency chart shows high latencies (high elapsed times),this can be caused by any of the following:

  • • A high number of requests caused by SQL statements that are not tuned
  • • A large number of processes in the queue waiting for the CPU, or scheduling delays
  • • Slow, busy, or faulty interconnects. In these cases, check your network connection for dropped packets, transmittals, or cyclic redundancy check (CRC) errors.

QUESTION NO: 135

Which three steps must be completed to configure Fast Connection Failover for the CRM service with an

Oracle Call Interface client?

A. Ensure that the CRM service has Advanced Queuing notifications enabled by setting the services values of AQ_HA_NOTIFICATIONS to TRUE.

For example:

$ srvctl modify service -d crm -s gl.us.oracle. com \

-q TRUE -P BASIC -e SELECT -z 180 -w 5 -j LONG

B. Enable OCI_EVEINTS on the client at environment creation time by using the OCIEnvCreate(...) function.

C. Use Oracle Call Interface to configure UP events for the service.

D. Client applications must be linked with the client thread or operating system library.

Answer: A,B,D

Explanation

Configuring FCF for OCI Clients

OCI applications must connect to an Oracle RAC instance to enable HA event notification. Furthermore, these

applications must perform the following steps to configure FCF for an OCI client:

Configure the service for your OCI connection pool to enable connection load balancing and runtime

connection load balancing. Also configure the service to have Advanced Queuing notifications enabled, as

shown in the following example:

$ srvctl modify service -d crm -s ociapp.example.com -q TRUE -B THROUGHPUT -j LONG

Set the context of the environment for OCI calls on the client to enable subscriptions by using the

OCIEnvCreate() call, setting the MODE parameter value to OCI_EVENTS, as follows:

(void) OCIEnvCreate(&myenvhp, OCI_EVENTS|OCI_OBJECT, ...);

Link the application with a thread library.

After linking with the thread library, the applications can register a callback that is invoked whenever a FAN

event occurs.

Oracle® Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide

11g Release 2 (11.2)

QUESTION NO: 136

Assuming a RAC database called ORCL, select three statements that correctly demonstrate management actions for the AP service.

A.To start the AP service, execute:

srvctl start service -d ORCL -s AP

B.To disable the AP service on the ORCL4 instance, execute:

srvctl disable service -d ORCL -s AP -i ORCL4

C.To stop the AP service, execute:

srvctl stop service -s AP

D.To make ORCL5 a preferred instance for the AP service, execute:

srvctl set service -d ORCL -s AP -i ORCL5 -r

E.To relocate the AP service from the ORCL5 instance to the ORCL4 instance, execute:

srvctl relocate service -d ORCL -s AP -i ORCL5 -t ORCL4

Answer: A,B,E

this question can be split on :

  1. create service ( AP )
  2. disable service on specific node
  3. stop service
  4. make preferred instance for service
  5. realocate service

Only administrator-managed databases can have preferred and available instances

first of all look at help:

[oracle@oel5-1 ~]$ srvctl add service -d orcl -h

Adds a service configuration to the Oracle Clusterware.

Usage: srvctl add service -d <db_unique_name> -s <service_name> {-r "<preferred_list>" [-a "<available_list>"] [-P {BASIC | NONE | PRECONNECT}] | -g <pool_name> [-c {UNIFORM | SINGLETON}] } [-k <net_num>] [-l [PRIMARY][,PHYSICAL_STANDBY][,LOGICAL_STANDBY][,SNAPSHOT_STANDBY]] [-y {AUTOMATIC | MANUAL}] [-q {TRUE|FALSE}] [-x {TRUE|FALSE}] [-j {SHORT|LONG}] [-B {NONE|SERVICE_TIME|THROUGHPUT}] [-e {NONE|SESSION|SELECT}] [-m {NONE|BASIC}] [-z <failover_retries>] [-w <failover_delay>] [-t <edition>] [-f]

-d <db_unique_name> Unique name for the database

-s <service> Service name

-r "<preferred_list>" Comma separated list of preferred instances

-a "<available_list>" Comma separated list of available instances

-g <pool_name> Server pool name

-c {UNIFORM | SINGLETON} Service runs on every active server in the server pool hosting this service (UNIFORM) or just one server (SINGLETON)

-k <net_num> network number (default number is 1)

-P {NONE | BASIC | PRECONNECT} TAF policy specification

-l <role> Role of the service (primary, physical_standby, logical_standby, snapshot_standby)

-y <policy> Management policy for the service (AUTOMATIC or MANUAL)

-e <Failover type> Failover type (NONE, SESSION, or SELECT)

-m <Failover method> Failover method (NONE or BASIC)

-w <integer> Failover delay

-z <integer> Failover retries

-t <edition> Edition (or "" for empty edition value)

-j <clb_goal> Connection Load Balancing Goal (SHORT or LONG). Default is LONG.

-B <Runtime Load Balancing Goal> Runtime Load Balancing Goal (SERVICE_TIME, THROUGHPUT, or NONE)

-x <Distributed Transaction Processing> Distributed Transaction Processing (TRUE or FALSE)

-q <AQ HA notifications> AQ HA notifications (TRUE or FALSE)

Usage: srvctl add service -d <db_unique_name> -s <service_name> -u {-r "<new_pref_inst>" | -a "<new_avail_inst>"} [-f]

-d <db_unique_name> Unique name for the database

-s <service> Service name

-u Add a new instance to service configuration

-r <new_pref_inst> Name of new preferred instance

-a <new_avail_inst> Name of new available instance

-f Force the add operation even though a listener is not configured for a network

-h Print usage

[oracle@oel6-1 ~]$ srvctl add service -d orcl -s "AP" -r orcl1,orcl2,orcl3 -a orcl4,orcl5

[oracle@oel6-1 ~]$ srvctl start service -d orcl -s "AP"

[oracle@oel6-1 ~]$ srvctl status service -d orcl

Service AP is running on instance(s) orcl1,orcl2,orcl3

start instance :

srvctl start service -d dbName [-s service [-n nodeName | -i instanceName ]]

The database name is the only mandatory argument here. If service names are omitted, then all services for the database will be started.

stop services :

using the following command:

srvctl stop service -d dbName [-s service [-n nodeName | -i instanceName] ] [-f]

moving a service

move a service from one set of nodes to another :

srvctl modify service -d dbName -s service -i oldInstance -t newInstance [-f]

srvctl relocate service -d orcl -s rac_taf -i orcl1 -t orcl2

change from available to preferred instances:

srvctl modify service -d dbName -s service -i availableInst -r [-f]

[oracle@oel6-1 ~]$ srvctl modify service -d orcl -s rac_taf -n -i orcl1,orcl2,orcl3 -a orcl4,orcl5

A. To start the AP service, execute:

srvctl start service -d ORCL -s AP

B. To disable the AP service on the ORCL4 instance, execute:

srvctl disable service -d ORCL -s AP -i ORCL4

C. To stop the AP service, execute:

srvctl stop service -s AP

D. To make ORCL5 a preferred instance for the AP service, execute:

srvctl set service -d ORCL -s AP -i ORCL5 -r

E. To relocate the AP service from the ORCL5 instance to the ORCL4 instance, execute:

srvctl relocate service -d ORCL -s AP -i ORCL5 -t ORCL4

QUESTION NO: 137

Which two actions in a warehousing RAC database may cause concurrent cross-instance calls

leading to I/O contention?

A.truncate table statements

B.select statements referring to non-partitioned tables

C.drop table statements

D.insert statements where each instance inserts into different partitions of a partitioned table

Answer: A,C

Explanation:

Concurrent Cross-Instance Calls: Considerations

In data warehouse and data mart environments, it is not uncommon to see a lot of TRUNCATE

operations.

These essentially happen on tables containing temporary data. In a RAC environment, truncating

tables concurrently from different instances does not scale well, especially if, in conjunction, you

are also using direct read operations such as parallel queries.

As shown in the slide, a truncate operation requires a cross-instance call to flush dirty blocks of

the table that may be spread across instances. This constitutes a point of serialization. So, while

the first TRUNCATE command is processing, the second has to wait until the first one completes.

There are different types of cross-instance calls. However, all use the same serialization

mechanism.

For example, the cache flush for a partitioned table with many partitions may add latency to a

corresponding parallel query. This is because each cross-instance call is serialized at the cluster

level, and one crossinstance call is needed for each partition at the start of the parallel query for

direct read purposes.

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Oracle 11g: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration Accelerated 14 27

What Application Design considerations should I be aware of when moving to Oracle RAC?

The general principals are that fundamentally no different design and coding practices are

required for RAC however application flaws in execution or design have a higher impact in RAC.

The performance and scalability in RAC will be more sensitive to bad plans or bad schema design.

Serializing contention makes applications less scalable. If your customer uses standard SQL and

schema tuning, it solves > 80% of performance problems

Some of the scaleability pitfalls they should look for are:

* Serializing contention on a small set of data/index blocks

–> monotonically increasing key

–> frequent updates of small cached tables

–> segment without automatic segment space management (ASSM) or Free List Group (FLG)

* Full table scans

–> Optimization for full scans in 11g can save CPU and latency

* Frequent invalidation and parsing of cursors

–> Requires data dictionary lookups and synchronizations

* Concurrent DDL ( e.g. truncate/drop )

Look for:

* Indexes with right-growing characteristics

–> Use reverse key indexes

–> Eliminate indexes which are not needed

* Frequent updated and reads of small tables

–> small=fits into a single buffer cache

–> Use Sparse blocks ( PCTFREE 99 ) to reduce serialization

* SQL which scans large amount of data

–> Perhaps more efficient when parallelized

–> Direct reads do not need to be globally synchronized ( hence less CPU for global cache )

RAC: Frequently Asked Questions [ID 220970.1]



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